2nd International Conference “Biotechnology in Agriculture”

ILIRIAN POSTOLI, FATMIRA SHEHU

Phd Student

Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, AUT

*Corresponding author; E-mail: ipostoli@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Microbiological hygiene in food production and processing aims to protect the consumer from pathogenic agents and assure food quality. Techniques and practices in the food industry have evolved to aid formal quality control systems in meeting international or company standards for total quality management systems as well as customer demands. HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point) systems and good hygiene practices are very important in meeting these obligations at an affordable cost, without compromising safety, quality, or service to the customer. The purpose of our study is to identify microbial risks by controlling process surfaces in dairy industry production areas. Our study focused on the analysis of 120 surface samples for the counting of Total Aerobic Bacteria using “Contact Slides” and swabbing from stainless steel surfaces in accordance with ISO 18593. In hygiene control, the Total Number of Bacteria and Enterobacteria provides an estimate of the level of contamination risk during production. The study was conducted in 4 milk establishments, respectively with 30 samples. The results showed a low hygienic quality, proving that 72 samples showed high levels of microbial contamination. 58 samples resulted in <50 CFU/24 cm2, 49 samples 101-1,000 CFU/24 cm2 and 23 > 1,000 CFU/24 cm2. This situation necessarily requires the revision of the health protocols of these surfaces. Only in this way can the public health risk, caused by the consumption of milk ilk products, be produced in low hygienic conditions.

Keywords: Contact slide; swabbing; HACCP; contact surface.

Zamira Hoxha*, Dhimiter Rapti

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University of Tirana

*Coresponding author Email: zhoxha81@hotmail.com

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Abstract

Uroliths are formed in all the species of domestic animals, and is one of the important lower urinary tract diseases in dogs [2,7]. Formation of uroliths is not a disease but rather a complication of several disorders, which is pretty often a result of a combination of both pathological and physiological factors. Some disorders can be identified and corrected but some can be identified but not corrected, although for others, the underlying etiopathogenesis is not known [3,4]. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of stone formation depending on age, breed, sex of dogs, and the type of stones on their formation. This study was conducted over the period from July 2013 to January 2017 where data were collected on a total 160 cases of dogs with urinary problems and distinct clinical signs in the urinary tract, which were admitted into clinics and hospitals in Tirana district.  Of all the cases which were identified with urinary problems and distinct signs of the urinary tract, 14 (9% ) of them tested positive for the presence of stones and 146 (91% )of them tested negative .All of the animals examined were broken down into several age groups ranging from 0-5 years old, from 5-9 years old, and those from 9 years old and above. The average age of dogs with uroliths were 5-9 years old or accounting for 55% of all the cases under observation testing positive.Determining the frequency of male dogs against female ones a higher prevalence resulted in male dogs at 9 cases otherwise 64% and in female dogs at 5 cases otherwise 36% respectively.Uroliths from crossbreed, Dalmatians, German shepherd, Yorkshire terrier was calculated  in almost 40% of all canine uroliths, with the highest frequency in Dalmatians, which had a predominance of urateuroliths with a percentage of 25%.The most frequently identified materials were struvite which occupy the highest proportion of stones at about 37% of stones found. These were followed by calcium oxalate and uric acid stones standing at 27% respectively. Silicates were found in just one case at 9% of total combined. An important factor contributing to this case was a very concentrated food diet which had a prevalence of 9 case (64 % ), 5 was the  cases which had been subject to home-based food or  (36 % ).

Nikolin Daija

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University of Tirana

Email: ninodaija@hotmail.com

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Abstract

In this study we took 2,921 dogs, of whom 1,521 were female and 1,400 were male. These dogs were tested for diabetes mellitus, and 10 of them were positive. 6 of these dogs were female and 4 were male. Dogs in this study were 1- and over 10 years. In our study were diabetic dogs at the age of 5-9 years. Greater susceptibility to diabetes mellitus were female dogs.

Keywords: Dogs, gender, age, female, male

Muharrem Sejdiu, Pandeli Marku, Bujar Jashari, Rrahim Sejdiu

Agricultural University of Tirana,

University of Applied Sciences, Ferizaj,

Corresponding author: Muharrem Sejdiu, E-mail: msejdiu5@hotmail.com

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Abstract

Mitrovica is known as the region in which the first saws of timber were set there. Today this region supplies a very large part of Kosovo with sawn timber (coniferous). The trunks of coniferous species in this region are: pine, fir and spruce which mainly are imported from Montenegro. In this study, we tried to bring interesting data on the subjects of this region for sawing trunks and production efficiency of sawn timber, as well as field losses or form of waste, wood residue and sawdust.

To conduct the study, there were taken a number of conifers, were sawn and measured to determine the efficiency of sawing trunks. Results of the study are provided below:

The volume of sawing logs 23.071 m3

Boards 16.268 m3

Wood residue 3.941 m3

Sawdust 2.548 m3

Others 0.313 m3

The study shows that, by sawing trunks were produced 70.52% boards, 17.08% wood residue, 11.04% sawdust, and 1.36% others.

If worked with better technical measures, by performing division of trunks according to diameters and by calculation of models by maximum sawing for each trunk diameter, sawing trunks efficiency would be higher.

Keywords: trunks, sawn timber, wood residue, sawdust, conifer.

EMILIAN SHABANI, AVNI ROBAJ, EGLANTINA XHEMOLLARI, KASTRIOT BELEGU; ROMEO BOÇI

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University, Tirana, Albania.

Faculty of Agricultural and Veterinary Prishtina, Kosovo.

PAZA project, Tirana, Albania.

Corresponding author email: avni.robaj@uni_pr.edu

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Abstract

Cows are always regarded as an essential source of animal products (meat, milk, leather, bones) and as natural land fertilizers. One of the permanent tasks of mankind has been and remains the improvement of the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. This exaggerated obsession is related to increased demand for products and by-products originating from cows.  Such levels requirements tend to exceed all genetic capabilities of animals  and constitute the major ubiquitous cause of metabolic problems [31]. The liver is an organ of great importance in the body. It actively participates in the synthesis of glucose, in plasma protein formation, in formation and excretion of bile salts, in pigment excretion, in the formation of prothrombin, in detoxification and excretion of many substances including photodynamic agents. Ruminants liver has a remarkable functional reserve. Clinical manifestations of liver diseases becomes apparent only if 70% of parenchyma is totally in functional inactivity. Using imaging methods especially ultrasound for diagnosing of hepatic diseases in cattle is indicated because other diagnostic methods including the determination of hepatospecific enzymes, in most cases are insufficient [31]. Hepatic ultrasound examination is rewarding because it defines the hepar size, position, shape, condition, dimension of vessels and different types of hepatic disorders [31].  Hepatic lipidosis is the most important metabolic disorder of dairy cows during early lactation and is responsible for ill-health and poor reproductive performance of the animals. Efficient application of diagnostic and preventive strategies for this syndrome has great economic importance. Transitional period between late pregnancy and early lactation is a situation where creates an excessive drainage of different nutrients. Hepatic lipidosis is a condition that usually develops in the period near of calving and in early lactation [20].  Hepatic lipidosis develops when hepatic lipid intake exceeds the level of oxidation and exretion of lipds from liver. This condition is characterized by high concentration of free fatty acids metabolized by adipose tissue. Lipid excess is deposited as triglycerol who is primarily responsible for reducing the liver’s metabolic functions. Liver can be categorized as normal or average, moderate or severe hepatic lipidosis, encephalopatic lipidosis, and hepatic incefalopatia [3] and [6] and [17]. Syndrome of hepatic lipidosis affects almost half of herd immediately after calving. The amount of fat accumulated in liver in the first 10 days after calving ranges from 60 to 120 grams per day. Lipids accumulated in liver occupy 12 to 25% of liver wet weight. In some cases, hepatic lipidosis followed by severe inflammation resulting in patient’s death. If patients who suffer from this syndrome are not treated, mortality captures the values 25% [3].

VALBONA HOBDARI, Doriana BODE, Belul gixhari, Fetah elezi, adrian doko

Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

Department of Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

Corresponding author e-mail: vhobdari@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract

Study for characterization of genetic diversity present in the durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) germplasm stored in genebank was carried out in the Experimental Field of Agriculture University of Tirana during the growing 2015-2016 season. The study analyzed 99 durum wheat accessions genotypes of local origin for 15 quantitative morphological characters and had the objective to characterize and select those with favorable characteristics for use in breeding programs and for accomplishment of farmer requests. Variance analysis, and correlation and cluster analysis reveal presence of significant variability between and the association among different traits. Most of the quantitative morphological characters (11 traits) showed significant differences for the important agronomic traits. Cluster analysis for morphological data divide the whole-wheat genotypes into six cluster groups in respect of genetic diversity and similarity among durum wheat accessions. Higher number of the wheat accessions was included into the fifth and the sixth cluster groups (21 and 24 accessions respectively). The study identifies traits with agronomic interest that account for genetic diversity and which will facilitate the maintenance and agronomic evaluation of the wheat collections.

Keywords: Clusters analysis, diversity, germplasm, quantitative characters.

Luljeta Alla, Xhelil Koleci

Public Health Institute, Tirana Albania

Veterinary Public Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author; E-mail: xhelil.koleci@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract

Leptospirosis is an important bacterial zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogansspp. It occurs worldwide, and is endemic in Albania. Among farm animals, cattle are most affected and it is mostly a herd than individual problem.

The aim of this study was to compare the disease seroprevalence in two differentdairy cattle and our goal was to identify risk factors and their impact in disease prevalence.

Materials and methods:The serological data were drown from previous microscopic agglutination test carry out on sera blood samples. The statistical analyze was conducted and an association between risk factors and disease prevalence was calculate.

Results:The prevalence of Leptospirosis in two dairy farms managed indoors was highly different, respectively 29.3% and 6.6%. The location, flooding, rat control program were identified as risk factors which explain, at list in part, disease prevalence difference.

Keywords: Zoonotic disease, Leptospirosis, titre, risk factor.

Bejo BIZHGA

Department of Preclinic Subjects, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author; E-mail: bbizhga@ubt.edu.al & bejobizhga@yahoo.com

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 Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused from Toxoplasma gondii, an protozoan parasitic organism. Toxoplasmosis is common in any warm blooded animals. Intermediate hosts can be infected with the parasite, but need cats (definitive host) to complete the life cycle of T. gondii. Toxoplasmosis resulted present in 1.8% of heads of cats examined in this study where 442 cats household or in contact with the human, were examinated under coproscopic examination for 10 years period (2006-2016) in Tirana area. According to age, 6/168 (3.22%) were young (up to 1 year old), 2/153 (1.3%) adults (1 to 8 years old) and 0/121 (0%) were old (>9 years old). Positive cats were free to have an almost linear stretch across age 0-1 years old. Above adult categorie in old cats is no cat was diagnosed positive during coproscopic examinations (over 9 years). Although no statistical differences were found between negative and positive cats regarding gender (p> 0.05). Statistical differences were found between negative and positive cats regarding age (p < 0.05). Parasitic loads resulting in variations, but with higher values and a danger for the infestation potential capacities of the environment, food and water. The large number of oocysts need checks and monitoring of the feline population and their treatment of faecal is the main way of knowing the epidemiological situation and the risk minimization by toxoplasmosis. While monitoring of contact with cats and preserving environmental quality, food and water is the main road to avoid infestation of intermediate hosts including man. Hight parasitic loud in cats positive for toxoplasmosis increase more potential capacities for free cats that move in large environments required for food causing the infested premises. The most important element is the treatment of faecal. They collected and not processed or burned. By throwing waste in the premises of rain or winds through trasport they become a source of occurrence of the infection.

KeywordsToxoplasma gondii;  infection; host; oocyst; coproscopy.

RAIMONDA TOTONI (LILO)*, EDLIRA BARAJ

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematical Engineering and Physical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Tirana.

*Corresponding author e-mail: rtotoni@gmail.com; edlirabaraj@yahoo.co.uk

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Abstract

At the present, one of priority objectives of Albanian Government in the agricultural field is the rehabilitation of existing irrigation/draining schemes in river basins. One of the most critical schemes remains that of Divjaka system. The proximity of the Karavasta Lagoon and the intercourse of draining waters within the lagoon body urge the careful management actions to be undertaken on the site. This paper intends to offer a model for integration of actions on the rehabilitation of irrigation system in Divjaka area, in order to maintain the ecological status of surface and ground waters in this region. It aims also to contribute for the improvement of the salinity balance at Karavasta Lagoon, considering the irrigation system water as the main resource of freshwater of the lagoon.

The authors have considered all available data on lagoon and ground waters quality, collected data on the quantity of fertilizers and pesticides used in the agricultural lands, the land use of the site according Karavasta/Divjaka Management Plan, etc. Suggestions how the environmental management tools can use the irrigation and draining waters as an instrument to maintain natural status of surface waters in the site and to reduce as much as possible salinization of ground water, by its overexploitation for irrigation purposes, have been provided. Proposal and application of the proper mitigation measures, implementation of the monitoring program and improvement of the administrative interactions are considered as some of the main tools that will contribute in successful accomplishment of such objective.

Key words: irrigation system, eutrophication, salinity balance, Karavasta Lagoon

ELDORES SULA, VALBONA ALIKO

1*Department of Nurse and Physiotherapy, Aldent University, Tirana, Albania

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tirana, Albania

**Corresponding author E-mail: eldoressula@info.al

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Abstract

Stress is an event that most animals experience and that, induces a number of responses involving all three regulatory systems, neural, endocrine and immune. Fish cultures are especially at risk to the adverse effects of stress. Blood chemistry and hematological measurements can provide valuable physiological indices that may offer critical feedback on different stressors. Blood samples were collected from the caudal vein of Carassius carassius after subjected to stressors and parameters such as plasma cortisol and glucose levels were estimated. Also, immunological response through neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were evaluated. The responses of C. carassius to stress were characterized by rapid and transient significant increases in glucose, hemoglobin, hematocrit, as well as an equally dramatic but delayed increase in cortisol levels. High ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes (N: L) in blood fish were found, which reliably is related with high glucocorticoid levels. Our results strongly indicate the close relationship between stress hormones and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, concluding that N: L ratio and its relation with glucocorticoid hormones can provide a reliable method to study responses of fish to stress.

Key words: stress, plasma cortisol, glucose, immunological response, neutrophil, lymphocyte.

ELDORES SULA, VALBONA ALIKO

Department of Nurse and Physiotherapy, Aldent University, Tirana, Albania

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tirana, Albania

* Corresponding author E-mail: eldoressula@info.al

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to determine the effect of stress in liver of Carassius carassius, a freshwater fish that normally dwell in the bottom layer of the waters of lakes, rivers and reservoirs. It is a sedentary fish that naturally feeds on zoo benthos and plant components and thanks to its sensitivity to the changes in surrounding medium is an ideal animal for indication of the health of freshwater aquatic ecosystems. It is susceptible for the teleost fish liver to be disturbed by numerous, stressful factors that influence in their health. Liver pieces of 30 individuals collected from Seferani Lake, in Dumrea region (Elbasan, Albania), were excised and processed for standard histopathological analysis. The result revealed pathological changes in liver tissue including heterogeneity of tissue parenchyma, irregular hepatocyte cells and their nuclei. Massive vacuolization of liver cells and their nuclei, necrotic foci, karyolysis and karyopicnosis were also observed. Our findings imply that histopathological evaluation can be used effectively as biomarker of fish physiological stress response and health status.

Key words: histopathology,  liver, necrosis, physiological stress response, fish health.

AVDIRRAHMAN GASHI, TOKLI THOMAJ , TAULANT MITRUSHI,  EDLIRA KUKALI

Faculty of Agricultural & Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana &Faculty of Agricultural & Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana,

In Vitro laboratory Elbasan.

*Corresponding author E-mail: avdi-gashi773@hotmail.com

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Abstract

The aim of research was establishment and maintenance of in vitro explants free from bacteria. PrunusAviumexplants intended for tissue culture as object of research treated with different concentrations of sterilizante. The presence of bacterial contaminants is extremely important to micro propagate plants.

Different concentration of HgCl2 (0.01; 0.02 %) and NaOCl (0.25; 0.5%) for varying exposure time (15; 20 min).The highest contamination (80%) and least explants survival were identification when used 0.02% HgCl2 or 90 % with 0.25%NaOCl.

Minimum death of explants was in 0.01% HgCl2 and 0.5 % NaOCl disinfected for 15 min respectively 90%- 95%.Isolated buds, after sterilization with 0.01% HgCl2 for 15 min are characterized by higher survival rate, respectively  85% for P. mahaleb and 92% for P. avium (rootstocks: i – P. avium x P canascens (Gisela 6)

Keywords: explants; prunusavium; sterilization;in vitro; concentration.

VALBONA HOBDARI*. BELUL GIXHARI

Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

Corresponding author e-mail: vhobdari@ubt.edu.al  

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Abstract

Assessment of genetic diversity of grass pea (Lathyrus sativum) genotypes stored in Albanian genebank, was carried out in the Experimental field of Agricultural University of Tirana, during two growing seasons. Twelve local forms of grass pea’s collection, evaluating 15 qualitative traits with high inheritance degree, were used for the assessment of variability between qualitative traits and genetic diversity of Lathyrus sativum genotypes. The grass pea collection in genebank is a modest valuable group of legumes species for animal production, but, little is known about the extent and nature of the variability of the species. The aim of the study was the evaluation of the major qualitative traits, important for characterizing the grass pea genotypes, and determining the potential of this forage species in agriculture. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (ward method) identified the variances of the principal components (PC) and the proportion of the total variance each factor accounts for and range grass pea genotypes into three different cluster groups. Study identified the qualitative traits with agronomic interest which account for genetic diversity and the demarcation of distinguishable morphological groups will facilitate the maintenance and agronomic evaluation of the collections.

Keywords: Cluster analysis, grass pea genotypes, principal components

Muharrem Salihaj, Aida Bani

PhD candidate at Agricultural University of Tirana, Koder-Kamze, Tirana, Albania,

Agro-Environmental Department, Faculty of Agronomy and Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, Koder-Kamze, Tirana, Albania

*Coresponding author E-mail:muharremsalihaj@hotmail.com

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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to find out the nickel level in the serpentine multi-floral-honey obtained from the honeybeeswith higher nickel concentration than the non-serpentine flora. The average value of Ni concentration in the aerial part of examined flora samples comprised of 10 different plant species resulted to be 336mgkg-1. The honey was collected from 1 apiary three years in the row,which is situated in serpentine area of south-eastern part of Kosovo-Rezhance and from 3 other apiaries from non-serpentinearea. Obtained results have revealed higher concentration of nickel in the serpentine multi-floralhoneythan those in the non-serpentine honey.

The average Ni level in the serpentine multi-floral honey was 3.71mg.kg-1, with the highest concentration of 3.96mgkg-1. Whereas the average levels of Ni in the non-serpentine flora was1.66 mg.kg-1.with the highest reading of1.92 mgkg-1.

In conclusion, the entire amount of nickel in the honey comes either from nectar collected by honey bees in the Ni accumulative and hyper-accumulative serpentine flora or by dust coming from serpentine soils, which is abundant on Ni content.

Keywords: Honey, Ni, Serpentine flora, non-serpentine flora, beehive

BESMIRA XHAFERRI,AIDA BANI, GUILLAUME ECHEVARRIA, ERMELINDA GJETA

Agro-Environmental Department, Faculty of Agronomy and Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Nancy-Université, INRA, France

 Department of Biology, Faculty of Natyral Sciences, “A.Xhuvani” University, Elbasan, Albania

*Coresponding author E-mail: besmiraxhaferri@yahoo.it

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Abstract

Environmetal factors, such as climate and chemical land composition, are a primary force in shaping the distribution of plant species. While many plant species can be found growing in a variety of habitats, some species become entirely restricted to a particular soil type. Serpentine soils, that constitute 10% of the Albanian surface, provide one of the most remarkable examples of plant adaptation to atypical soils. Albania has a very rich nickel hyperaccumulatorflora which could serve as candidates to be used in phytoextraction and phytomining. Phenological studies give contribution for obtaining adequate information on the way to the appropriate time of collection of the hyperaccumulator plants. The metal accumulation amounts vary based on the plant organs, and as well as by the stages of its biological cycle. During our work we observed the variation in nickel absorption in the organs of Alyssum murale in a typical Albanian Vertisols; PrrenjasSamples of soils and plants were collected during the flowering period of A.  murale plant. In serpentine soils of Prrenjas the available nickel was 24 mg kg-1. Depending on climate, macronutrient and heavy metals in soils the heavy metal concentration in steams, leaves and flowers in Prrenjas samples of A. murale were respectively 4666, 15855, 12302 mg kg-1 Leaf and flower were the plant organs with the highest concentration of nickel. So this population is promising for the phytomining processes.

Keywords: phenology; Nickel hyperaccumulators; Heavy metals; Alyssum species; Plant organs

Hajredin Toca*; Hekuran Vrapi, Thanas Ruci

Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, Kodër Kamëz, Tirana, Albania,

 *Corresponding author: E-mail: hajredintoca@yahoo.com

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Abstract

The susceptibility/ resistance ratio  to diseases is not considered as a key-criterion in peach breeding programs. Even if the turn-over of peach cultivars is important, suitability for organic and low-input systems remains unknown for most of the cultivars. Leaf curl of peach and nectarine, caused by Taphrina deformans (Berk.) Tul, is a difficult disease to control throughout Albania. Heavily infected fruit trees are poorly nourished, develop fewer flower buds, and are more easily damaged from freezing in winter. In this research, the behavior (susceptibility/resistance) of 2 peach and 2 nectarine varieties to leaf curl disease was investigated in ecological conditions of Tirane, Albania province in 2016. Disease severity was calculated by the 0-5 scale when typical symptoms of leaf curl were evaluated on peach and nectarine leaves in naturally infected orchards. From the observation data we can see that in the method where we use PMB to protect the peach from leaf curl (Taphrina deformans),  index of this disease (Imc-ja in%) varies from 2% in Royal Black cultivar to 3.33% in cultivar Black and with control ranging from 38% in Roajal Black cultivar and up to 48 667% in cultivar Venus. Results are truly alluring and method in biological treatments where infection levels (Imc-in%) ranged from  12 667% in Royal Black cultivar   until 20:33% in Red Star cultivars.

Keywords: Peach, organic, cultivar, quality, Taphrina deformans

Zyber GJONI, Foto KASHTA, Nikollaq BARDHI,

University of Durres, Albania

Agricultural University of Tirana

*Corresponding author e-mail: zybergjoni@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Uva Ursi is widespread in Mount Korab, mainly in soils with high content of gypsum. From the appearance and morphologic construction, the plants represent changes of plant organs in the number and size. This was the reason that the study was undertaken to determine the morphological variation [3, 4, 10] for some indicators, such as the length and number of branches and internodes length, the number of leaves, the length of leaves, the width of leaves and length of the leaf tail. Besides morphological indicators, the weights are made for: the quantity of leaves per plant, the weight of the wet and dry mass and their ratio, the weight of 100 dried and fresh leaves. These indicators are measured and weighed for seven geographic points where the spread and development of plants is very good. In conclusion it was made the data processing and calculation of the correlation coefficients [8, 9] between the measured indicators. By processing and analysis of morphological indicators it is concluded that the plants represent statistically validated changes in the indicators measured for seven points, where the samples are taken. Among the indicators it has strong links, and specifically between the length of the leaf with the leaf width, as well as for plant production

Key words: Uva ursi, indicators, morphological, correlation and sample.

FESTIM REXHEPI BIZENA BIJO, ALUSH MUSAJ, VALDET GJINOVCI, KUJTIM UKA

Kosovo Food and Veterinary Agency, Department of Public Health / Industrial Zone, Pristina 10000, Kosovo

University of Agriculture, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine / Kodër Kamëz, Tirana 10000, Albania

University of Mitrovica, Faculty of Food Thechnology / Industrial Park, Mitrovica 40000, Kosovo

*Corresponding author; E-mail: festim.rexhepi@rks-gov.net

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Abstract

The Kosovo Food and Veterinary Agency as a Competent Authority for Food Safety, drafts and monitors the National Plan for Residue, in order to obtain an overview of the compliance with the Food and Feed National Law. According to the Directive 96/23 /EC for the Measures on Monitoring of certain substances and their residues in live animals and products of animal origin as well as the National Administrative Instruction 07/2016 regarding prohibition on the use of stockfarming of certain substances having a hormonal or thyreostatic action and of beta-agonist, Competent Authority monitored implementation plan in compliance with EU policies for veterinary drugs residues monitoring. The stilbene substances (Group A1-Stilbenes, stilbene derivatives, their salts and esters) are substances which are strictly banned for use in animals, that are used for food production. Diethylstilbestrol DES is the main representativ active substance of stilbenes, as a syntetic derivate of non steroidal estrogenes. It is possible usage for commercial purposes from farmers, poses a food safety risk. Regarding this publication we are going to present the monitoring of residues in bovines for the last three years. We planned to collect 30 samples, on farm level 15 (urine) respectively in slaughterhouse 15 (meat). Out of total 30 planned samples to be tested, and all of them were actually tested. Samples were tested in Food and Veterinary Laboratory, using ELISA as rapid test. The final result shows that 28 (93.3 %) of them have negative detection and two of them (6.6 %) resulted as suspected in urine matrix on farm level. As a result, we conclude there is a necessity for further testing on confirmatory analysis.

Keywords: Diethylstilbestrol-DES; Elisa; Meat; Residues; Sample; Urine;

VALDET GJINOVCI, ALUSH MUSAJ, FILLOJETË RRUSTEMAJ

Univeristy of Mitrovica “Isa Boletini”, Faculty of Food Technology and Engineering, Department of Food Technology / “Parku Industrial” Street, N.N., 40000, Mitrovica, Republic of Kosovo

Food and Veterinary Agency of Kosovo, Directorate of Public Health / Industrial Zone, N.N., 10000, Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo

*Corresponding author; E-mail: valdetgjinovci@gmail.com

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Abstract

The presence of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase-positive as an important pathogen in food products is the cause of infection and intoxication from food. Samples submitted for this thesis were collected over a period of one year from food business operators in Kosovo. During this period, 178 samples were collected which were analyzed from a microbiological aspect for the presence and count of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Samples were taken by inspectors of the Food and Veterinary Agency and analyzed at the Food and Veterinary Laboratory in the Department of Food Microbiology using the horizontal method of counting coagulase-positive Staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus) – ISO 6888-1: 1999.The presence of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus coagulase-positive in food products is an indicator of poor hygiene during treatment or processing of food products, and being recognized as strong toxin producing bacteria in food products, it can be a cause of foodborne illnesses.The final result shows that five (5) samples out of 178 or 2.8%, have a positive result. From samples of milk and milk products, three (3) were positive, while from samples of meat and meat products two (2) proved to be positive. Results of samples of other food products were all negative.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; enterotoxin; foodborne intoxication

VALDET GJINOVCI, ALUSH MUSAJ,KUJTIM UKA, FESTIM REXHEPI

1Univeristy of Mitrovica “Isa Boletini”, Faculty of Food Technology and Engineering, Department of Food Technology / “Parku Industrial” Street, N.N., 40000, Mitrovica, Republic of Kosovo

2Food and Veterinary Agency of Kosovo, Directorate of Public Health / Industrial Zone, N.N., 10000, Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo

*Correspondingauthor; E-mail: valdetgjinovci@gmail.com

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Abstract

Kosovo is facing serious environmental issues. There are initiatives to improve the situation but the main concerns are from (i) industrial emissions and immissions into soil, air, surface and groundwater, (ii) the discharge of untreated wastewater and sewage into the rivers and streams. During the ex-Yugoslavia era, the expansion of heavy industries in Kosovo was a major focus for economic development. It was not common to take environmental aspects into consideration because it seemed incompatible with economic output. Ore mining concentrated upon chromium, nickel, copper, lead and zinc. Over the past two decades economic activity has continued with these extraction industries for the production of raw materials and semi-finished products (e.g. lead, coal, zinc and some textiles). The energy sector is also a source of pollution in Kosovo mainly impacting the air with CO2, SOand dust and especially for the neighbouring areas of Obiliq where the greater part of the electricity is generated from lignite-powered thermal plants. However, the environmental impacts from the current level of agricultural activity are considered low.

KeywordsOrgano-pollutant parameters, Heavy Metals, Screening analyses, Soil pollutants

PJERIN SHOSHI, ETLEVA DASHI, NATASHA HODO, NATALIA VLLAMASI

Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Economics and Agribusiness, Tirana – ALBANIA

Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tirana – ALBANIA

*Coresponding author E-mail: pjerin.shoshi@gmail.com

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Abstract

The Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development of the Government of Albania, aims to modernize and orient the entire agriculture sector. The sector is supported by different schemes (national and by international donors). The financial tool to implement this Program, is the “Agriculture and Rural Development Investment Fund”.

The Albanian agriculture sector is facing multiple difficulties in accessing financing tools for future investments [1]. One of the biggest issues for the Albanian farmers is the impossibility in accessing bank loans [3]. The National Guarantee Fund for Agriculture and Rural Development aims to enhance access to finance for the Albanian agribusinesses through loans for the farmers [2]. The Government of Albania in collaboration with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) are implementing a financing tool which will facilitate the farmers access into loans and will reduce the interest costs by guarantying the banks for most of the loan collateral [5].

The National Guarantee Fund for Agriculture and Rural Development will be implemented in collaboration with 6 (six) Financial Institutions operating in Albania [2]. This Fund will be operating in the framework of the Albanian Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development. The guarantee provided by the Government of Albania and EBRD, enables the PFIs to reduce their collateral requirements. This will create facilities and enable more farmers to access loans and to finance their investments [4].

This article will analyze the future impact of this financial support for the agricultural sector and the enhancement of its competitiveness.

Keywords: The National Guarantee Fund for Agriculture and Rural Development, the Albanian Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development, farmers access to finance, Agribusiness Risk-Sharing Facilities, Technical Assistance.

 HASAN CANI,  ARSEN PROKO, VATH TABAKU, NAZMI AJAZI.

Balkan Center for Cooperation  of  Development (BCCD),

Faculty of Science Forest,

Dajti Ekspres. sh.a

*Corresponding author  E-mail: cani.hasan66@gmail.com

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Abstract:

Erosions is present even more in non-agricultural land. So we can say that in some watersheds of the rivers of our country, for the whole territory scraping evaluated various different rivers. Forests continue to be the main source for heating, the destruction of forests is continuously incalculable. All logging of forest massifs (oak, black pine) is converted into a real concern for residents of many areas of our country, after cutting has caused the gëryerjeve and landslides. Erosion is the process of transport and deposition inhibitor of dust and solids during which leave the surface of the earth by the different processes and factors that occur as wind or water leaks and then being transported and deposited elsewhere. While erosion is a natural process, human activity has increased by 20-50 times the rate at which erosion is occurring. Forest area as a result of lowering the level of forest vegetation coverage from deforestation, fires, natural disasters, construction of new roads, andclimate change are among the urban extensions most distinguishing that stimulates the process of soil erosion. Consequently we are dealing with the acceleration of erosion causing problems that can classify as ‘on – site’ and ‘off-site’. Effects “onsite” consequently lead to reduce the productivity of forests and pastures, since we are dealing with the loss of top-level layers of soil that are rich in nutrients and minerals salts. The main objective of this study is to contribute to developing the strategy for the conservation of soil erosion and surface water and also identify potential risk and reflect the current erosion in the watershed of Boville. This study is part of the use of Geographic Information System (GIS). Initially, his main goal was to collect and use environmental data to be used in environmental studies as typical character of the biotope inventory, atmospheric pollution, water pollution. Corine also included the creation of a database in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and the exchange of data generated.

Keywords: Erosion, Geographic Information Systems, cover plans, database.  

EMILIAN SHABANI, AVNI ROBAJ, KASTRIOT BELEGU, ROMEO BOÇI

Department of Preclinic Subjects, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University, Tirana, Albania

 Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Prishtina, Kosovo.

 PAZA project, Tirana, Albania.

*Corresponding author; avni.robaj@uni_pr.edu

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Abstract

For pregnancy diagnosis in sheep have been used various methods (clinical, radiologic, ultrasonographic and hormonal). Both pregnancy and fetal numbers are accurately diagnosed by using radiography after day 70 of gestation. A-mode and Doppler ultrasonic techniques accurately detect pregnancy during the second half of gestation. Fetal numbers cannot be determined by A-mode ultrasound, while the Doppler technique needs experience to achieve high accuracy. Transrectal B-mode, realtime ultrasonography identifies the embryonic vesicles as early as d 12.8 days after mating, but the sensitivity of the technique for pregnancy is very low (12%) earlier than 25 days after mating. Transabdominal B-mode ultrasonography achieved high accuracy for pregnancy diagnosis (94% to 100%) and the determination of fetal numbers (92% to 99%) on day 29 to 106 of gestation. Realtime, B-mode ultrasonography appears to be the most practical and accurate method for diagnosing pregnancy and determining fetal numbers in sheep.

Keywords: Ultrasonography; radiology; diagnosis; sheep; pregnancy.

Esa Karalliu, Romeo Boçi, Vladimir Hatia, Vasil Prifti3, Ruzhdi Keçi, Besmira Manaj Xhelil Koleci

Junior expert PAZA II, Private Veterinarian Practitioner, Lushnje, Official Veterinarian, Agricultural Directory Lushnje, Veterinary Public Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tirana, Albania

* Corresponding author:xhelil.koleci@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract

A highly severe outbreak of Lumpy Skin Disease occurred in cattle. Affected cattle showed typical clinical signs and many farms have had significant economic losses.

The aim of this case study was to describe clinical and epidemiological features of lumpy skin outbreak.  In addition, we analyzed the economic impact and role of control measures to control the disease.     

Material and method: We investigate the outbreak in an entire cattle population by closely monitoring the clinical signs and post vaccination reactions in animals. Furthermore, we interviewed the farmers to estimate the economic impacts and biosecurity measures applied.   

Results: Lumpy skin disease affected most of the farms in the village, and approximately 18.7% of the cattle population showed clinical signs, the fatality rate was 7.1%. Supportive treatment was used extensively and it resulted successfuly even in extreme cases. The milk yield production was highly affected at it ranged from totally up to 20%. Interestingly, almost 12.5% of affected animals aborted. Few animals suffered from “bad” mastitis. Vaccination strategy was used at two different times and modified live vaccines produced from different manufactures. The post vaccination reactions were closely monitored and it was a significant difference between vaccines. Massive vaccination provided sufficient protective herd immunity.

Keywords: Disease outbreak, lumpy skin disease, vaccination.

Elvana Zhezha,  Ruzhdi Keçi, Hekuran Huna, Klodian Dedolli

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University of Tirana

Private Veterinarian at Dibra Region

*Corresponding author; E-mail:k_ruzhdi@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Economic analyzes of animal disease and their impact on animal health and animal production recently is becoming more popular and a new research area. This study calculate general economic impact of bluetongue disease on Dibra region during 2014. The study involve broad economic analyzes of animal direct physically lost, drop milk production and other expenses related with possible farmers compensation for dead animals.

The aim of this study was assess calculation of economic lost from bluetongue disease by converting them in monetary value according above mention aspects.            

Material and method: The methodology of this study is based on analyzing of data collected from dedicated questioners for this aim.  The data on number of total animals according species are used official data of INSTAT. The data were analyzed with ToolPak Excel software.

Results: Economic lost were significant, the cost for only deatd cattle is 32000 Euro while daily drop milk production can be reduced up to 80%, converted in 4 Euro per day per animal, or more than  400 euro per day.

Keywords: Disease Outbreak, Bluetongue, Impact, Economics of Animal Health and Production.

Ermira Milori*, Liljana Qorri, Eliana Ibrahimi, Sajmir Beqiraj

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Bulevardi Zog I, 25/1, 1001 Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author e-mail : ermiramilori@gmail.com

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Abstract

The invasive blue crab Callinectes sapidus has been largely distributed along the Adriatic coast of Albania during the recent years. The aim of the present study is to provide data on the distribution, assessment of the abundance, the structure and biometric characteristics of the `blue crab population in Viluni Lagoon. The data presented in this paper has been collected during 2014 – 2015. Besides direct observation and samples, collection in the studied area, questionnaires have also been distributed to the local fishermen with the purpose of gathering information about the presence of the blue crab, assessment of its state and its possible impact on the other populations in the Viluni Lagoon, as this species seems to be already established in this lagoon.

Keywords: blue crab, invasive species, Viluni Lagoon, Adriatic Sea.

TANJA KAMBURI, LuLJETA PINGULI,

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Human Sciences, University “Fan S. Noli” of Korca, “Nene Tereza” street, ish-Divizioni, Korce, Albania.

Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tirana University, Zogu I boulevard, Tirane, Albania

*Corresponding author; E-mail: tanjakamburi@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Proteins are a very important class of organic components in beer. They are long chains or polymers with large molecular weight composed from amino acids, connect to each other via peptide bonds. Quality and sustainability of beer depends on its protein content. Proteins play a very important role in many stages of brewing process. They are essential in the malt and wort production, also have a direct impact on the consistency and the formation of beer foam. This means the protein content in malt affect the quality of the finished product. It is very important to determine protein content before using malt for beer production. Malt is the main source of protein in beer. Proteins are made from compounds with nitrogen bases such as e.g. amino acids; every 1% nitrogen is equal to 6.25% protein. In this paper are the results of malt protein content in 2014,2015,2016 year. The amount of soluble protein or nitrogen, expressed in percentage by weight of malt and this indicator will be used to calculate the amount of nitrogen dissolved. Soluble nitrogen is determine by EBC method. Industrial and experimental yield is calculated based on the values of soluble nitrogen. Is studied the connection between the amount of soluble nitrogen or protein content in malt and the characteristics such as viscosity,turbidity, Hartong Index and enzyme levels. All malt that exceed the protein content over 12% (1,9 TN), cause problems in boiling process or in turbidity of beer. European malt lager or ale type have a protein content below 10%. The amount of dissolved nitrogen is a very important indicator for the modification of malt. The higher this value is, the more the malt will be modifiable. Protein content in malt grow to the extent 9-14% compared with barley.

Keywords: brewing, priteins, malt, soluble nitrogen, turbidity, viscosity,  yield.

Oliver  Lekaj,  Pranvera mziu ,  besnik gjongecaj

M.Sc., PhD student.,Department of Agro-environment and Ecology, Agricultural University of Tirana, KodërKamëz, Tirana, Albania.

Prof. Dr., Department of Agro-environment and Ecology, Agricultural University of Tirana, KodërKamëz, Tirana, Albania.

*Corresponding author: e-mail: bgjongecaj@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract

In spite of the undisputable importance of the cumulative particle size distribution curves in textural assessment of soils, there is not any effort, up to now, to build them in the research process of Albania. Even more, there is not any effort to use or apply these curves in the general practice of soil management. The only way to deal with the texture of Albanian soils up to now  has been by using the textural triangles, which many times have brought confusion in the process. That is why, the objective of this study is to initiate the process of introducing the cumulative particle size distribution curves in research process of scientists in Albania and on this base, developing some more accurate methods to replace gradually the textural triangles in the textural assessment process of soils. In this context, this article will be followed by other ones, in order to cover adequately the entire process of replacement the textural triangles by cumulative particle size distribution curves. The method applied is based on the combining of three very much known classifications on particle sizes: ISSS, USDA and Katschinski ones, with their specific particle sizes limit ranges. The soils picked to carry out the study are respectively representatives of three major groups, divided as such based on textural status: light soil, medium soil and heavy soil. The curves were determined by applying the regression analysis. The determined functions showed the distribution of particles of various sizes over a range starting from less than 1 µm to 2000 µm. It resulted that the best fit, for each of the three soils considered, is a semi logarithmic function, which is in accordance with the results of many research works done in this area.

Keywords: soil texture, cumulative particle size distribution curves, textural triangle, particle size limit ranges.

ISMIJE SAITI, KASTRIOT KORRO, KRISTAQ BËRXHOLI

Faculty of Natural Sciences and Math, Study Program of Biology, State University of Tetova, Tetovo, Macedonia,

Lecturer for “Zoo & Wildlife and Medicine”, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author; E-mail: ismije.saiti@unite.edu.mk

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Abstract

Query or Queensland fever (Q fever) is a bacterial infection affecting a variety of animal species as well as human beings. Q fever is caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate, intracellular, rickettsial organism that can survive in a dried condition for extended periods. The aim of study was to examine the prevalence of Q fever antibodies in farm animals (sheep, goats and cows) and determining the statistical trend with descriptive and conclusive statistical methods according to species in five regions in Western Macedonia (Tetovo, Gostivar, Kicevo, Debar and Struga). A total of 1,120 farm animals were examined, of which 178 serums resulted positive, with a scale of 15.89% positivity. Based on species, the infection is widespread in all three species and in every region. The percentage of infection in sheep in the whole region of Western Macedonia is 26.37% – a very high rate compared to that in goats 6.60% or cows 7.50%. The statistical analysis of the data results, prove that there is a connection and similarity among the samples from five regions in terms of the spread of the Q fever infection in farm animals (sheep, goats and cows). The serums were conserved in -30 °C and as a serological test was used ELISA IDEXX, which is carried out based on its relevant protocol using purified antigen of C. burnetii.

Keywords: Q-fever, Elisa test, antigen, prevalence, farm animals.

JOLDA ZOTAJ,ARLINDA ҪAÇI, KRENAIDA TARE, JOANA KOKALARI, ALKETA LAME, EFROSINI KOKALARI (TELI

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences Tirana

Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Natural Sciences

*Corresponding author E-mail: joldazotaj @yahoo.com

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Abstract

Flavonoids are polyphenol substances that are common in many plants and possess a wide spectrum of biological activities. Among them, an important polyphenol compound is quercetin. This compound is contained in red onion 19.93mg/100g and in yellow onion 13.27mg/100g. Quercetin has anti-inflammatory, anti-histamine, anti-cancer effects and other biological activities. In recent years quercetin is proved to be an efficient inhibitor against the corrosion of metals and alloys. Both inorganic and organic synthetized compounds, have a toxic effect upon environment and human lives. A great interest are represented corrosion’s inhibitors, which are extracted from different plants, known as green inhibitors.  These compounds are cheap and safety handled to be used as corrosion inhibitors.

The extract of quercetin from onion skin, represents a great inhibitive action against corrosion of metals and alloys in acidic media. Quercetindiglucoside and monoglucoside account for up to 93% of total flavonol content in onion.

Quercetin from the onion skin was obtained by alcoholic and water extraction. The extract was stored at 4oC and in the dark.

The product of extraction was analyzed with infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, in order to define its chemical structure. Also we defined the yield, density and molecular weight of the product. The product of extraction was quercetin and we propose to use it as corrosion inhibitor.

Keywords: extraction, onion skin, quercetin, corrosion inhibitor.

FIQIRI TAHIRI*, LUAN HAJNO, FATMIRA LEKA(SULAJ)

Agricultural Technology Transfer Center, Fushe Kruja, Albania

*Corresponding author  e-mail: fiqiritahiri@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Study was carried out at commercial beef farm ”Kazazi”, Kavaja. The objective was to evaluate growth performance of F1 crossbreds. A total of 40 calves (n= 8 heads of each group) was included in experiment. The analysis comprised purebred HF bull calves (control group) and crossbred bull calves (experiment groups) born from crossings: (CH♂ x HF); (BB♂ x HF); (S♂ x HF) and (AA x HF). Body weights at birth, weaning (84 days) and post-weaning (182; 274; 365 and 450 days) were evaluated. Average daily gains, feed intake and efficiency as well as feed ration costs from birth to weaning, and post weaning (85-182; 183- 274; 275- 365 and 366-450 days) were evaluated. The CH × HF, BB x HF and S x HF F1 crossbreds reached higher body weights (kg) at birth: 42.7±2.87; 40.81±2.51 and 41.6±2.70 (p<0.01; 0.05; 0.05); weaning: 115.10±9.24; 111.75±8.53 and 110.18±7.91 (p<0.05; 0.05; 0.001) and final one: 488.80 ±24.61; 478.58±46.34 and 459±32.77 (p<0.05; 0.01; 0.05) compared to purebred HF bull calves body weight (kg): at birth 40.22±2.60; weaning 102.48±8.56 and final one 404.28±31.52 respectively. The CH × HF, BB x HF and S x HF F1 crossbreds had higher average daily gains (g): from birth to weaning 862±76; 844±72 and 816±62 (p<0.05; 0.01, 0.05) and weaning to finishing:  993±87; 978±82; and 953±76 (p<0.05; 0.05; p<0.01) compared to purebred HF bull calves daily gains(g): from birth to weaning 741±73 and weaning to finishing 825±64 respectively. AA x HF crossbred bull calves had the lowest body weights(kg) at birth 35.81±2.24 (P<0.05) and higher daily gains(g): from birth to weaning 781±73(p<0.01) as well as post weaning  969±58; 948± 59; 846± 61;782± 73(p<0.05; 0.05; 0.001) compared to  purebred HF bull calves live weight(kg): at birth 40.22±2.60 and daily gains(g): from birth to weaning 741±73 as well as post weaning 897±58; 851±71; 810 ± 55; 729±68 respectively. Feed efficiency (gain/feed) for all the period from birth to finishing (0-450 days) for CH × HF, BB x HF, S x HF and AA x HF F1 crossbreds resulted 24.48; 22.41; 19.02 and 11.4% higher than purebred HF bull calves respectively. Average costs of daily feed diets for the periods 0-84 and 366-450 days resulted 20.34 (283.8lek) and 14.51 % (270.07 lek) respectively higher than average feed diet cost (235.84 lek) for all the period 0-450 days. As a conclusion: CH × HF, BB x HF, S x HF and AA x HF F1 crossbreds, as a result of heterosis, had growth rate as well as feed efficiency higher than purebred HF bull calves

Key wordscalf; body weight; gain, feed efficiency

*FATMIRA LEKA (SULAJ),  FIQIRI TAHIRI, LUAN HAJNO, HELGA TOPI

Agricultural Technology Transfer Center,  Fushe Kruje – Albania

Livestock Technologies Department

*Corresponding author  sulafatmira@ymail.com

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Abstract

Reproduction is the main factor in determining the efficiency of animal production. Reproductive efficiency can be described as a measure of the ability of cows to conceive and produce calves. Fertility economic level is usually assessed by the calving interval,  the period between 2 successive calving. Management factors conditions the  improve reproductive performance to optimize, in herds of cows with high genetic capacity. For the study is analyzing the information collected in three regions of the country (Fier, Durrës, Shkodër) to (n = 1200) cows of Holstein breeds included in the Book of Breed which serves as a basis for evaluating performance production and reproductive of herds milk production. This cattle population is extended (n = 90) dairy farms. The total of (n = 1505) complete lactations and estimates, about (n = 987) met the criteria lactations for further processing for performance evaluation and ranking of cattle production by level of production. The data cover the period from 01.01.2012 – 31.12.2015. The processing of data, resulting an average milk production of 5618 kg / 305 day lactation with a variation of 3176-8128 kg / 305 days lactation and an average age of 4.89 years with a variation from 3.2 to 7.81 years. The survey data show that significant differences are found between herds regarding the production of milk. Also observed differences regard to the average age between herds. 25% of the populations of cows have extended lactations (390-540 days) and therefore long calving intervals across from optimal, which occur primarily in first lactation cows. The interval between calving is the most important indicator of herd reproduction. In the study undertaken this indicator is (431 ± 113) days (n = 621). Reproduction efficiency of cattle with higher production capacity remains one of the challenges facing today’s big and medium farms level. In this context, the study aims to optimize reproductive performance through improved breeding conditions influencing the interval calving – calving in cows with high production capacity.

Keywords : Performances, efficiency, reproduction, lactation, calving interval, cow, breed.

Edi Fero, Arla Juma, Ali Lilo, Toni Kirandjiski, Robert Connor, Xhelil Koleci

Veterinary Directorate of Albania, Institute of Food Safety and Veterinary, PAZA II expert, Veterinary Public Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author; E-mail: xhelil.koleci@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract

Bovine brucellosis is an important bacterial zoonotic disease caused by Brucellaabortus. It occurs worldwide, and is present in Albania. Cattle are susceptible to B.abortus, B.melitensisand B.suis.  In Albania, bovine brucellosis is detected by active and passive surveillance. In 2016, the active surveillance was focused on dairy farms with more than 20 animals/farm. Currently, limited data is available on the causal agent of the disease in Albania.  

The aim of this study was to determine the herd and individual animal prevalence of bovine brucellosis in dairy farms with more than 20 cattle.       

Materials and methods:Bulk milk samples were collected from dairy farms. The milk samples were analyzed by a milk ring test. Sera from individual animals in milk ring test positive herds were tested by Rose Bengal test and positive results were confirmed by the complement fixation test.

Results: Eleven out of 278 herds were positive in the first monitoring round according to the milk ring test; nine of these herds were positive in Rose Bengal and complement fixation test. In the second phase, five of 257 dairy farms were positive in milk ring test and subsequent serological tests. In the milk ring test positive farms 5.2 to 59.3% of cattle were affected by brucellosis. 

Keywords:Zoonotic disease outbreak; Bovine Brucellosis; Ring Milk Test.

Edi Fero, Arla Juma, Toni Kirandjski, Robert Connor, Xhelil Koleci

Veterinary Directorate of Albania, Institute of Food Safety and Veterinary, PAZA II expert, Veterinary Public Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tirana, Albania

Correspondent author:xhelil.koleci@gmail.com

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Abstract

Lezha district was assumed as one of rare district in Albania where bovine brucellosis was not laboratory confirmed.  In 2016, a programme that prescribes compulsory screening by bulk milk of all dairy herds with more than 20 animals starts with enforcement. Animals from positive herds on bulk milk should be individually tested and control measures in accordance with Albanian legislation implemented.Positive laboratory result on bovine brucellosis on bulk milk was reported in a farm in village Blinisht in Lezha. The epidemiological investigation revealed that as many as 40 animals were introduced in the farm in September 2015. Abortions in cattle started to occur in December 2015 and continued until September 2016 with a total of 12 abortions. After the positive milk ring test, sera from 49 individual animals were tested using RBPT and confirmed with CFT. Laboratory results on individual animals revealed 30 positive results (60%).

The aim of this study is to describe the active surveillance adopted for the dairy farms in Albania, standard procedures that needs to be adopted for outbreak management and shortcomings identified in this process.

Material and method:The bulk milk sample was collected from the dairy farm and analyzed by milk ring test. Individual animals from milk ring test positive farms were tested by Rose Bengal test and positive results were confirmed by complement fixation test.

Results:The absence of measures after abortions in the period of almost 10 months resulted in very high within herd prevalence. Lack of animal movement control was identified as a source of infection in the Lezha case, and one of the principle way of introduction of Brucella infection in dairy farms in Albania. Control measures applied in the Lezha case were enforced where all positive reactors were slaughtered including cleaning and disinfection of the premises.

Keywords: DiseaseOutbreak, Bovine Brucellosis, Ring Milk Test, Biosecurity, Cleaning and Disinfection.

BLERTA LAZE, ARTA LUGAJ, ANILA MITRE

Department of Biology, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University “Ismail Qemali”, Vlora, Albania

 Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

* Corresponding author E-mail: lazeblerta@gmail.com

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Abstract

Aim of investigation: Comparison of an electrochemiluminescence technique (ECL, applied in Cobas 6000 instrument) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, applied in CHORUS instrument) for early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii and cytomegalovirus infections in pregnant women. Medical diagnostic is working to determine the most sensitive techniques required for diagnosis of these pathogens, in the framework of which is developed this scientific work. This is very important due to their multiple fetal infections during pregnancy.

Methods: ECL and ELISA techniques are used to detect anti-toxoplasma IgM and anti-cytomegalovirus IgM antibodies in pregnant women, during the first trimester of pregnancy. 200 samples were analyzed with both techniques and sensitivity and specificity are evaluated for each of them.

Results: ECL technique has resulted in higher sensitivity and specificity (98%-100%), while ELISA (CHORUS) technique has resulted in lower sensitivity and specificity (86.7%-97.3%).

Conclusion: Analysis Analysis of the results confirmed the usefulness of ECL technique for early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii and cytomegalovirus infections in pregnant women. Anyway, for diagnostic purposes, the results should always be assessed in conjuction with the patient’s medical history and other clinical examinations.      

     

Keywords: Electrochemiluminescence; ELISA; Cytomegalovirus; Toxoplasma gondii; sensitivity; specificity

BLERTATurani*,VALBONA ALIKO

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

*Correspondence author: E-mail: blertaturani@yahoo.com

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Abstract

The temperature is a determining factor for the successful development of the larvae in amphibians. The plasticity during metamorphosis is important especially in populations of amphibians living in Mediterranean climate zones with high temperatures and relatively low precipitations, were the risk of pond desiccation is high. To study the effect of water temperature on the embryonal and larval development of in-vitro reproduced Albanian water frog, Pelophylax shqipericus, two batches of approximately 100±20 eggs (stage 14-16, Gosner) were raised in the laboratory at four different temperature regimes (30C, 170C, 200C and 250C), with 12:12 photoperiod. To follow the process of metamorphosis, three important key events were evaluated: budding of the hind limbs (stage 1), the formation of the anterior (stage 2) and posterior limbs (stage 3), and the reduction and disappearance of the tail (stage 4). Development time and stage were strongly affected by temperature variation. The results showed a lengthening of development time with decreasing temperatures and a better survival rate of P. shqipericus with high temperatures. Values of temperature of 190C-200C resulted to be optimal for larval development, while very low temperatures (t=30C) and very high ones (t=250C) strongly impede larval development.  These results demonstrate that temperature is one of the most important factors that strongly affects the success of embryonic and larval development of P. shqipericus reproduced in-vitro.Since the Albanian water frog, is a native and an endangered species whose known populations are currently in decline, its successful in-vitro reproduction will contribute to conservation of the specimen.

KeywordsPelophylax shqipericusin vitro reproduction, development, temperature.

SILVANA DERVISHI, BAKI DERVISHI

1Fund of Compulsory Security Healthcare;

2Centre of Technologies Transfer, Fushë Krujë, Albania

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Abstract.

The production of seedlings is an orienting study for all the producers of seedlings vineyard and the fruit’s trees. Study aimed to drawing conclusions for the implication of the real factors in seedlings’ production and also of the impacts with the objective to achieve the low cost production of seedlings 

[1 ].

The study is made at one of the most ancient places for the cultivation of the vineyard in Albania with old traditions in this field. The area where the production of seedlings is focused, it is placed in the territory of Ndroq Commune, in the south -west of Tirana, in which a part of the farmers has build their farms for the production of seedlings.

Since in the ancient time in this area, the cultivation of vineyard has been a tradition, which is being resurected rapidly.

The objective is to evaluate the production of seedlings sector and to give the necessary recommendation for: (i)

The methodology of expenses records; (ii) Cost calculation methodology; (iii) The methodology of analysing the financial indexes. This study will incite all the seedlings growers in the country and a model in their work.

Keywords: trees and vineyard, competition chain financial indexes, costs, inputs.

NUE MARKU, KRISTAQ BËRXHOLI, JETON SPAHIU, KURTESH SHERIFI, AGIM REXHEPI

Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kodër Kamëz, Albania

 Food and Veterinary Agency, 10000, Prishtina, Kosovo

University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Bill Clinton str. 10000, Kosovo

*Corresponding author email: nue.marku@hotmail.com

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to describe the seroprevalence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in domestic ruminants in few municipalities in Kosovo. Bluetongue is an economically important disease caused by Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family. The outbreaks of diseases in sheep causing severe with typical clinical sign and economical loses and occasionally in cattle occurred in our country. Virus is transmitted between its mammalian hosts by certain species of biting midges (Culicoides spp.). A total of 322 blood samples were collected from 101 ruminant flocks (sheep, cattle and goat) in 27 villages, in four municipalities (Istog, Klinë, Malishevë, Rahovec). Sera were tested with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA)The results showed 9.0% of all sera were positive for BTV antibodies. The highest prevalence of antibodies in serum were in municipality of Rahovec 19.26%, followed by Malishevë 9.58% and Istog 1.10%, and no positive samples were in Klinë. High prevalence of BTV antibodies in cattle serum samples emphasize that disease has an important role in domestic ruminants, primarily in sheep, causing economic losses in these regions, and probably throughout Kosovo.

Key Words: Bluetongue, c-ELISA, Kosovo, Seroprevalence, Ruminants

MARSILDA QYLI (MEMAJ)*, VALBONA ALIKO

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tirana University, Albania

*Corresponding author  e-mail: qylimarsilda@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Hypoxia is one of the key threats to most of the marine environment. Although motile organisms have the potential to avoid the low oxygen conditions, they can suffer indirect and sub lethal impacts as a result. Little is known of how acute hypoxia affects physiology in crustaceans. The present study assesses the effect of hypoxia on the heart rate, hemolymph glucose levels and lysosomal membrane stability on Mediterranean crab, Carcinus aestuarii. The adult crabs C.aestuarii, were kept in hypoxic waters for 24 hours. Hypoxic conditions (50-60 mm Hg O2) were induced by allowing the crabs to consume their oxygen supply. The hemolymph glucose levels, the heart rate and neutral red retention time (NRRT) as a biomarker of lysosomal membrane stability have been assayed in both treatment (intact and eyestalk-ablated animals) and control groups. The hemolymph glucose level in intact animals were significantly increased (from 38.2 ± 3.2 to 141.2 ± 15.8 mg/dL, F=9.984, df =1, 11, p=0.010 so p<0.05), while in eyestalk-ablated animals has been slightly decreased (from 27±2.4 to 24±1.8 mg/dL, F=0.993, df=1, 10, p=0.343 so p>0.05). Heart rate were significantly increased by 30 % in treatment group after exposure to hypoxic water for 2 hours. NRRT has been significantly reduced in treatment group (from 120±25.2 to 42.3±11.4 min, p<0.05) after exposure to hypoxia. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding how environmental disturbances modify the physiological stress responses of crustaceans to survival hypoxia. Quantifying the relationship between physiological responses and environmental stressors, is crucial for developing mechanistic models that can predict how changes in disturbances over time in coastal ecosystems will impact ecological processes, particularly in the context of global climate change.

Key words: hypoxia, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone(CHH), hemolymph glucose level, heart rate, lysosomal membrane stability

Malvina KODHELAJ, Arjana YLLi

Department of Biotechnology , Faculty of  Natyral Sciences, University of Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author E-mail : malvinakarcini@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) in our country is considered as one of the main leguminous plants, and represent a high genetic variability and important for agricultural production. The use of induced mutagenesis techniques is one of the most important methods for the creation of new varieties. Besides the economic benefits, induced mutagenesis techniques also play an important role in the study of genetics and plant development. Numerous climatic changes that have occurred in recent years, its production has undergone a significant reduction. The aim of this study is to evaluate the response of bean plants from Shijak variety after treatment of bean materials with physical and chemical mutagens to shorten the time of flowering and green bean connection. Evidence of reduced production of beans has initiated studies to make possible the elimination of these losses in productivity. One of the problems identified is the abortion of flowers of the beans, so the legumes do not survive due to high temperatures and droughts in this period. Bean seeds are irradiated with gamma radiation of Cs-137, with three doses, and are treated with chemical mutagen dES in three different doses and control, and EMS also in three three different doses and control. Results obtained in the first generation of mutant M1 indicate changes compared to control for the both treatments. There were changes in the maturity period for the two gamma rays doses (100 Gy and 150 Gy). On the other hand, the third dose of dES has provided a diversity of legumes, with bigger seeds and large number of seeds. Changes have been noted in the amount of Chlorophyll pigments related to the acceleration of flowering, where the first doses of dES has given more and fast flowers compared to the control.

Keywords: Chemical mutagen; Chlorophyll pigments, Gamma irradiation Phaseolus vulgaris , Mutation.

BESNIK ELEZI, KASTRIOT KORRO

PhD candidate, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University of Tirana Agricultural University of Tirana

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University of Tirana Agricultural University of Tirana

*Corresponding author; E-mail: besnikelezi1972@gmail.com

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Abstract

The study presents the results achieved from the application of the immunohistochemical avidin-biotin complex method (IMHC-ABC) or the assessment of the risk of the presence of the Tularemia antigen in the flesh of hares haunted by the hunters in some of the regions of Macedonia, the ex-republic of Yugoslavia. The study indicates the method applied in 70 samples taken from the hares killed by the hunters, as well as some samples taken from the restaurants which offer in their menu. The study results with the identification of 4 positive cases with Tularemia from the samples submitted to this check. The check is significant, as it presents a method of assessment of the risk of the meat of the hares with the presence of this zoonotic disease, as well as it exposes a method which has not been applied before for this disease in the region.

Keywords: Immunohistochemical, avidin-biotin method, tularemia, FYROM-Macedonia, IMHC

KRASIMIRA UZUNOVA,  MEHMED HALIL, MARINA TOSHESKA,

Agricultural Faculty, BG – 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria;

DVM student,  Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lazar Pop Trajkov 5-7 1000 Skopje

*Corresponding author, E-mail: mira60bg@yahoo.com

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Abstract

The present paper investigates some of the most important terms and concepts of behavioral research, animal ethology, existence of pathological animal behavioral activities and animal welfare. It’s presented an interesting view of the nature of the term “welfare” and three main aspects of animal husbandry that it covers, also is an introduction of new scientific unit – pathoetology. Bulgarian perspectives of animal welfare can give significant contribution in enriching the concepts of animal “welfare” in linguistic and practical aspects.

Much scientific information concerning animal welfare has become available and it’s continues to grow rapidly. There is evidence that the behavioral needs and activities of animals are strong linked with animal welfare. If those needs can be met more adequately, stress will be reduced and productivity will be improved. Ethological parameters seem to be adequate when evaluating animal welfare pointing that identify and assess animal pathological behavioral activities are main markers to ensure their welfare. We used abnormal behaviors as indicators of poor welfare and to confirm the issue that animal welfare assessment has been most closely associated with pathoetology. It is concluded that ultimate causation of pathology should become a major focus in order to reach at valid approaches to animal welfare.

Keywords: welfare, animals, patoethology, analysis, classification

ANDREJEVA GOLLOSHI*, GËZIM KAPIDANI, MIRELA LIKA (ÇEKANI)

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Scinces, Tirana University, “Bulevardi Zogu i Parë”, Tirana, Albania.

*Corresponding author E-mail: andrejeva.golloshi@fshn.edu.al

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Abstract

For more than 50 years, many children with allergies and other forms of dietary protein intolerance have been treated successfully with protein hydrolysates with highly reduced allergenicity and, more recently, also with products based on amino acid mixtures. Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors.The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens.

After we filled the questionnaires by children, we estimated the level of the eosinophyle and immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the blood. We have used the color methods and blood striche to diagnose the eosiniphilia presence. To determine the IgE are used the EIA kits.

In this article, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in IgE sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The IgE level is so high and at the same of time and the level of eosynophiles is high in each case of food allergy in children.

After collecting the questionnaire data were processed and resulted positive 6.2% (56 cases out of 900 cases in total). Individuals who were allergic to different foods, the serum that was tested by ELISA to see the levels of the total IgE. 7% of the total positive cases have 165-175 UI/ml IgE level,  at intervals of IgE from 176 to 186 UI/ml resulted 21% positive cases, at intervals of IgE from 187 to 197 UI/ml, resulted 34% positive cases, and in the intervals of IgE 197-207 UI/ml, resulted positive to food allergy 38% of the cases. In cases positive for allergy to food, we studied the level of eosinophyle. Eosinophyle level has shown that in all cases their allergies have increased, indicating that higher eosinophylia is one of the main parameters of allergies caused by food

In almost all cases of children who are allergic to different foods, it has increased levels of IgE, which otherwise is called allergic immunoglobulin, and increased eosinophyle as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which emit their promotion contents granules that helps shown of allergic signs. Certain syndromes occur in children or individuals who are allergic to different foods, fruits or vegetables either.

Keywords: immune response; food allergy; immunglobulin; antigen.

YLLKA (MIJA) ÇANI, BEJO BIZHGA

PhD Candidate, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University, Tirana, Albania

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author; E-mail: ylkamia@live.com

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Abstract

Qualitative and quantitative examinations on the prevalence and parasitic load values of Ascaris suum infection was realized in the stools, nasal secretions, liver and lungs in all pig categories. Epidemiological coproscopy results showed that the most affected category are piglets 0-3 months (90% of heads and average parasitic load 142 e/g/f). Piglets category 3-7 months resulted in 71.9% and average parasitic load 184 e/g/f. Coproscopy examinations are efficient and offer the possibility of epidemiological estimates, while post-mortem examinations in slaughterhouses are efficient, low cost and provide sufficient data for Ascaris suum infection. Post mortem examinations to the slaughterhouse were alternative methods of study. In piglets, we examined nasal and lung secretions for the presence and number of larvae. This method was applied as an alternative examinations method.  Especially in piglets became careful clinical observation for signs of pneumonia and when parasitic pneumonia detected, the nose leaks were examined for the presence and number of larvae. Efficient alternative diagnostic techniques for Ascaris suum infection diagnosis used as comparative testing and are made in all pig farms in all the territory of the country. These methods used and converted into routine techniques to perform qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and other Ascaris suum infection estimates.

KeywordsAscaris suum; infection; pigs; method; estimates.

YLLKA (MIJA) ÇANI, BEJO BIZHGA

PhD Candidate, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University, Tirana, Albania

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author; E-mail: ylkamia@live.com

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Abstract

Study focused on diagnostic alternatives of Ascaris suum infection in 162 pigs in slaughterhouse. The range and infestation intensities of Ascaris suum infection depend on age, period and method of examination. Coproscopic examinations from 162 samples showed 124 of them (76.54%) positive for Ascaris suum eggs. Coproscopic examinations resulted the most efficient and offer the possibility of epidemiological estimates. From the samples were found with injuries as a result of migration process 49 pigs or 30.24% of the sample surveyed. During the macroscopic examination of the intestine of pigs were found with the adult parasite in 78 heads or 48.14% of the examined pigs. This value was about 20% lower than the value of coproscopic examination, but about 20% higher than the value of the examination of the milk liver spots. During of the macroscopic and microscopic examination in lungs were found with signs of pneumonia and parasitic larva migration in the lung parenchyma and the bronchi, 58 heads or 35,8% of the examined pig lungs. In pigs when parasitic pneumonia detected, the nose leaks were examined for the presence and number of larvae. From 162 nose tampons examined resulted positive for the presence of Ascaris suum migration larvae 26 pigs (16.04%) from the total of examined heads.  Post-mortem examinations in slaughterhouses at pigs resulted efficient, low cost and provide sufficient data for Ascaris suum infection.

Keywords: Ascariasis; swine; method; larvae; diagnose.

ALMA LLAMBIRI, LUMTURI PAPA

Department of Animal Produvtion, Fculty of Agriculture and Environment; Agricultural University of tirana, Albania

e-mails: daijaalma@yahoo.itlumturipapa@yahoo.com

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Abstract

The aim of research was to study the effect of rearing season and feeding on the performance evaluation of a local rabbit population. Five small scale family farms with rabbits of local breed were included in the study. Two groups of rabbits per farm were fattened during summer and winter seasons. One group was fed in usual way with feeds produced in farm consisted mainly of alfalfa dry or fresh depending on season and family residues. The feeding of the other group was daily supplemented with 25 g concentrate feedstuffs (17% protein) bought in the market. Supplementation with concentrate feedstuffs showed to improve meat production from rabbits in both seasons. Live weight at the end of fattening was increased with 216.9 g and 371.6 g respectively during winter and summer season. The factors that affect the differences in live weight realized were feeding regime, sex of rabbit (P<0.001) and season  of fattening (P<0.01).

The effect of these factors depended on their interaction effect like as “feed ration x season” (P<0.01), and “feed ration x sex” (P<0.05). Approaching growth curves with theoretical one of Gompers showed that concentrate adding in feed ration improved daily weight gain. It did not affect the dynamics of body weight change. It affects the gradient of quantity of daily gains of rabbits. Concentrate supplementation of daily feeding during fattening period increased up to 15.5 % the meat production as well as net income of the farm.

The rabbits feeding with daily supplementation, showed better slaughtering results than the another group; carcass percentage respectively 55.3% vs. 49.8 %; 61.2% vs. 51.8%) (P <0.01); good performance of the region’s most puncture respectively (20.4 %vs. vs. 18.4 %; 22.6% vs. 19.1 %) (P <0.01); and had also the highest bone ratio of  hind leg; 3.6 vs. 3.2 and 4 vs. 3.39 (P <0.01) respectively during winter and summer seasons

Key words: rabbit, local breed, fattening, feed supplementation, carcass,

REZANA PENGU, MARSEL KEÇI, ETLEVA DELIA

Faculty of Agriculture, F. S. Noli University Korce, Albania

Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author; E-mail: rezanap@yahoo.com

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Abstract

The major part of phosphorus (P) in cereals and seeds is stored as phytate (myo-inositol hekxakisphosphate), that is hard to digest for pigs. Phytate P in plants is a mixed calcium-magnesium-potassium salt of phytic acid that is present as chelate and solubility is very low. Phosphorus in this form is poorly digestible/available for simple-stomached animals. However, the enzyme phytase catalyses the hydrolysis of phytate rendering phosphate available for absorption. The reported effects of phytase addition on the improvement of P digestibility show great variation.

The aim of this study was to test the effects of the microbial phytase (NATUPHOS) on the performance parameters of gilt and weaned piglets.

The microbial phytase preparation (Aspergillus niger, NATUPHOS) was supplemented to a basal ration 750 FTU/kg feed and the effects on growth performance of gilt and weaned piglets were studied weekly.

The supplementation of microbial phytase improved slightly daily weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Overall a positive effect of the microbial phytase on performance parameters was observed. The P-excretion in the faeces was reduced also.

Keywords: Microbial phytase, Gilt piglets, Weaned piglets, Performance parameters.

LEDI PITE , BRISILDA PULLUMBI,

Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Water Administration, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author; E-mail: l_pite@hotmail.com

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Abstract

Livestock traceability is important to increase efficiency of disease surveillance and control. The livestock traceability system is a thorough system of livestock identification and tagging to assure the ability to trace the animal back to the farm of origin. Albania has embarked and is applying the livestock identification and registration, i.e. livestock traceability system, initially under the European Union (EU) projects in the context of the European Union enlargement. While there is a good opportunity to cover the initial investment and implementation by European Union assistance, it is important for Albania to foresee the sustainability of the livestock traceability system in a long run. Livestock traceability is becoming more sophisticated and it is important to understand the sustainability aspects. Sustainable livestock traceability system needs to balance economic efficiency and to achieve qualitative assurance. Quality assurance goes beyond the technical and economic viability aspects and requires organizational and institutional support.

The paper discusses how the sustainability of the livestock traceability system can be possibly achieved by giving consideration not only the technical technology aspects of livestock traceability system but also socio-economic and institutional developments of the country. The challenge of the sustainability of animal traceability system remains capacity building of strong formal and informal institutional relationships. A model of appropriate livestock traceability service for serving resource-poor farmers and wealthy producers for livestock disease control is discussed. In addition, this model can serve as an appropriate tool to support the subsidy schemes that government applies for rural development.

Keywords: Livestock Traceability, Livestock Identification and Registration, Sustainability, Animal Health.

Vilson Bozgo, Lorena Hysi, Anila Hoda

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

Email: ahoda@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract

Carbonyl reductase is a monomeric, cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the two-electron reduction of a wide range carbonyc compounds. We intend to make a silico analysis of CRB gene in different vertebrate species. The homology is analysed with NCBI BLASTp, a multiple alignment is carried out by Clustal Omega and phylogenetic tree is constructed by Mega 6. CRB protein is highly conserved in the considered species. No transmembrane regions or signal peptides were detected. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that human CRB1 was a cytoplasmatic protein (62.5%). Results showed an entire open reading frame of 887 bp encoding 295 aminoacids. This gene is expressed in different tissues, but is highly expressed in small intestine, liver and colon

Keywords: carbonyl reductase, expression, bioinformatic, in silicoclonning

Sabah Sena, Lumturi Sena, Anila Hoda

Department of Animal Production; Faculty of Agriculture and Environment; Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

Corresponding author e-mail: lumturisena@yahoo.com

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Abstract

The effect of two different feedbee’s concentrations application on the bee colonies‘ performance during the spring was observed and studied. For this purpose, in an appiary located in the sorroundings of Tirana, 14 bee colonies were selected, being analogue as far as the strength and Queen’s age is concerned. These colonies were divided into two groups respectively. In the first group (G1) 4% concentration Feedbee was applied throughout the whole period, while in the second group (G2) 10% concentration. The experiment was conducted during a three months period and was divided into two phases respectively by 1,5 months each. In both phases, the number of brooding frames/family and the size of caped brood area/frame and the colony for each group was measured and evaluated. At the end of the experiment it was concluded that the application of different Feedbees‘ concentration didn’t show any impact on the number of brooding frames. At the end of the first phase, it was concluded that increasing the Feedbee’s concentration from 4-10%, stimulated the growth of caped area with generation to an extent of 41.1%., while at the end of the second phase, only a trend to expand of caped brood area within the group that consumed 10% concentrated Feedbee was observed. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that the appropriate Feedbee’s concentration to be applied during the first phase would be 10%, while for the second phase, only 4% concentrated Feedbee can be applied, leading to almost the same results and saving 135lek/bee-colony.

Key words: Feedbee, concentration, bee-colony, capped brood area

BOŽIDARKA MARKOVIĆ, DUŠICA RADONJIĆ, MILENA ĐOKIĆ and Milan MARKOVIĆ

University of Montenegro, Biotechnical faculty, MihailaLalića 1, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro

Correspondingauthor; bmarkovic@t-com.me

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Abstract

The genetic variants of kappa-casein gene were found in different frequencies in various cattle breeds. These genetic variants cause differences in quality and composition of the milk. The objective of this work was to identify the genotypes and allelic frequencies of kappa-casein locus in Brown Swiss as an exotic breed and Busha cattle as indigenous cattle breed in Montenegro. The DNA of 21 blood samples of Busha breed cattle and 19 blood samples of Brown Swiss cattle were genotyped for polymorphisms at the kappa-casein gene by a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) essay. A 351 bp fragment of kappa casein was amplified and digested with HinfI restriction endonuclease. Three genotypes were identified (AA, AB and BB) with frequencies of 0.117, 0.450 and 0.433 respectively in Brown Swiss breed and 0.274, 0.499 and 0.227 in Busha breed. The frequencies of alleles were 0.316 (A) and 0.684 (B) in Brown Swiss and 0.524 and 0.476 (respectively) in Busha cattle. The genotyping of kappa-casein alleles (A and B) is of practical importance, since B allele is in positive correlations with commercially valuable parameters of cheese yielding efficiency. The results of very high frequency of B allele in Brown Swiss cattle confirmed good performance of this breed in Montenegrin population. This determination of A and B allele frequencies in population of Busha breed is the first research of this kind in Montenegro. It could be used for possible increasing the frequency of desired alleles and genotypes by including in the programs of selection and preservation of the Busha breed in Montenegro, as an important animal genetic resource.

Keywords: kappa-casein, PCR-RFLP, Busha, Brown Swiss

VEZIR JANUZI, LUMTURI SENA XHEVDET ELEZI

Faculty of Agriculture and Environment. Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary. University of Prishtina, Kosovo

Corresponding author: Vezir.Januzi@rks-gov.net

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Abstract

The effect of addition of different levels of organic Selenium in laying hens’ diets for a period of 13 weeks was studied in this research. For this purpose, 400 layers of hybrid Lohman Brown, aged 39 weeks were equally divided into four groups. The first group, which was used a control one (C) was fed with the standard feed formula, while the feed used for the other three groups was supplemented with Organic Selenium (Se) – Sel-Plex®, Alltech, inc., respectively 0.2 (Experiment 1 – E1), 0.3 (Experiment 2 – E2) and 0.4 ppm (Experiment 3 – E3). The egg production was monitored on daily basis, while the egg quality and content of Se in eggs was measured at the end of the week six and thirteen. Layers’ performances, total egg weight, the egg white weight, shell weight and shell thickness were not affected by the level of feed supplementation with organic selenium. At the end of the experiment, a significant improvement (P≤0.05) of the yolk’s weight was observed, at the group E2 and E3, respectively supplemented with 0.3 and 0.4 ppm Organic Selenium, compared with the control group. The addition of Selenium in the layers’ feed significantly increased its concentration in both the yolk and the white of the egg in the two measurements performed. Results of this study showed that the addition of Organic Se in layers diet increased its content in the eggs.

Key words: Laying hen, Selenium, egg quality, feed

DORINA BELI, ARTIONA LAZE, VJOLLCA GJINI2, MIMOZA MUKAJ, SKENDER VARAKU

Agriculture University of Tirana, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food, Kamez, Tirane, Albania

The transfer Center of the Agriculture Technology, Lushnje, Albania

Albanian General Directorate of Customs, Tirana, Albania.

(mimoza.mukaj@yahoo.com)

4Agriculture University of Tirana, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Kamez, Tirane, Albania.

*Corresponding author e-mail: dorinabeli9@gmail.com

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Abstract

Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat caused by Fusarium spp is one of the most widespread diseases in Albania which can cause significant yield losses if weather conditions are favorable (high humidity and temperatures above 24 degrees Celsius). This study was conducted to determine the influence of Fusarium HeadBlight  index (Imc) on the quality of wheat grain .The following was analyzed : thousand kernel weight, crude protein content, wet gluten, ash content and k-SDS sedimentation in relation with disease index and internal infection on 13 winter wheat cultivars grown during the year  2015-2016 on experimental fields of Agriculture Technology Transfer Center ( ATTC) Lushnja. Analysis of variance revealed significant variability’s on total proteins, K-SDS and disease index (Imc) evaluating the susceptibility and the resistance  of wheat cultivars against FHB . The statistical evaluation showed that there exists medium negative correlation between thousand kernel weight and disease Index (Imc) (r = -0.67).

Key words:  Fusarium Head blight, wheat , disease index, proteins, gluten.

RUDINA KOCI, ALFRED MULLAJ, ALMA IMERI, JULIAN SHEHU

Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment

University of Tirana, Faculty of Natural Sciences

*Corresponding author e-mail: rudikoci@gmail.com

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Abstract

A detailed study of flora and vegetation of south west part of Vlora bay is presented in this paper. Field work was carried out in the period 2014 – 2016. The total number of species recorded to be grown in the area was 155, implementing 134 genus and 46 families. Considering the total number of species found it can be concluded that the main number of species was represented by three families being respectively Poaceae 28 species, Asteraceae 16 species, Fabaceae 13. In the life – spectrum were over represented Therophytes 34, 19 % and Hemicryptophytes 32, 26 % of the total number of species. Twenty-four chorological groups are distinguished, where the Euri- Mediterranean elements (about 49 %) predominated. Of all plant species recorded, a considerable part belonged to medicinal plants, which covered about 19% of the total number. Among the found species seven of them belong to endangered species according to the Red Book of Albanian flora. Similar to the situation elsewhere, the biodiversity of south west part of Vlora bay is different today than in the past. Throughout the evolutionary history of the ecosystem, changes caused by natural factors took place. During the last half century, human activities contributed significantly to these changes.

Keywords: flora and vegetation, life forms, medicinal plants, chorology, endangered species .

SAMI KRYEZIU, ZVONIMIR BOZINOVIC, KRUM BOSKOV, ZLATKO PRCULOVSKI

Phd Candidate at University of Skopje Ss. Cyril and Methodius Faculty of Agriculture and Food, Skopje, R. of Macedonia.

University of Skopje Ss. Cyril and Methodius Faculty of Agriculture and Food, Skopje, R. of Macedonia.

University of Skopje Ss. Cyril and Methodius Faculty of Agriculture and Food, Skopje, R. of Macedonia.

Phd Candidate at University of Skopje Ss. Cyril and Methodius Faculty of Agriculture and Food, Skopje, R. of Macedonia.

*Corresponding author; E-mail: Samikrmr@gmail.com

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Abstract

During the period from 2015 to 2016, we investigated some agro-biological and technological characteristics for three Muscat Italija clones selections, including VCR 10, cl. 307 cl. 318, certificated seedling material was introduced from Raushedo VCR from Italy compered to standard material Muscat Italija table grape. The research were held in the location Terstenik of Tikvesh vineyard region, in Republic of Macedonia. Technological characteristics were examined; mechanical composition of the bunch of grape and barriers, mechanical properties of the bunch of grape and barriers (transportability and reaction strength), chemical composition of grapes and organoleptic evaluation, using the standard ampelographic methods of OIV .The studied and analyzes were carry out in faculty of Agriculture sciences and food, department of Viticulture and Oenology, in Skopje and laboratory of Stone castle Rahovec in Kosovo. From the investigation we saw that there were some significant differences between clones and standard variants.

Keywords: variety Muscat Italija, clones VCR 10, cl. 307 cl. 307, technological characteristics,

SAMI KRYEZIU, ZVONIMIR BOZINOVIC, KRUM BOSKOV, ZLATKO PRCULOVSKI4

  Phd Candidate at University of Skopje Ss. Cyril and Methodius Faculty of Agriculture and Food, Skopje, R. of Macedonia.

University of Skopje Ss. Cyril and Methodius Faculty of Agriculture and Food, Skopje, R. of Macedonia.

University of Skopje Ss. Cyril and Methodius Faculty of Agriculture and Food, Skopje, R. of Macedonia.

Phd Candidate at University of Skopje Ss. Cyril and Methodius Faculty of Agriculture and Food, Skopje, R. of Macedonia.

*Corresponding author; E-mail: Samikrmr@gmail.com

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Abstract

During the period from 2015 to 2016, we investigated some agro-biological and technological characteristics for two Kardinal table grape clones selections, including VCR 26, cl 80, certificated seedlings material was introduced from Raushedo VCR from Italy compared to standard material Muscat Italija table grape.

The researches were held in the location Terstenik of Tikvesh vineyard region, in Republic of Macedonia.

Technological characteristics were examined; mechanical composition of the bunch of grape and barriers, mechanical properties of the bunch of grape and barriers (transportability and reaction strength), chemical composition of grapes and organoleptic evaluation, using the standard ampelographic methods of OIV .

The studied and analyzes were carry outin faculty of Agriculture sciences and food, department of Viticulture and Oenology, in Skopje and laboratory of Stone castle Rahovec in Kosovo.

From the investigation we saw that there were some significant differences between clones and standard variants.

Keywords: variety Kardinal; clones VCR 26; Cl 80; technological characteristics

ROZETA HASALLIU, KRENAR GOZHDARI, FATBARDHA META, RENATA KONGOLI

Faculty of Biotechnology and Food

Agricultural University of Tirana

*Corresponding author e-mail: rhasalliu@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract

In this study we have done wine with Albanian grape varieties like Kallmet, Black Shesh, White Shesh, Pulz, and other grape varieties like Merlot and Kabernet. There are many microorganisms in grape that are used to do wine. Some of them are wild yeast, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria. Yeasts that are in grape are indigenous yeasts and spontaneous fermentation is done by them.

In Albania, some of wine producers produce wine with spontaneous fermentation and some other produce wine with inoculated yeasts that are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus or a mix between two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Sacharomyces bayanus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the initial number of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria in these grape varieties, to compare the quantity of these microorganisms between these grape varieties, to evaluate the difference between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria and their performance during the two fermentations, (spontaneous and inoculated fermentations), and the effect of yeasts to lactic acid bacteria.

Key words: wine, yeast, lactic acid bacteria, initial number, spontaneous and inoculated fermentations.

ADELA SHESHI, DONIKA KËRÇINI

Faculty of Economy and Agribusiness; Agricultural University of Tirana

Corresponding author e-mail: adelasheshi@gmail.com

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Abstract:

The main issue of the study is the importance of leadership and how it impacts the performance of the business in Albania. Theories suggests that leadership has an important impact on business performance and the relationship depend on sector, size, location and other variables. This study was designed as descriptive and its data gathering method is questionnaire. The questionnaires were addressed to 100 (one-hundred) shareholders of the companies in various industries that are operating in Albania. Since for this topic no study was done before in Albania, these findings of the study will allow us to develop a model of business performance of SMEs and to test the hypotheses proposed. The results show that two out of three leadership styles have positive affect on business performance in Albania. In conclusion, this study will have a positive impact because will bring important contributions such as: determining the role of each attribute (transactional, transformational and participative) towards the performance of SMEs in Albania.

Keywords: leadership, transformational, transactional, participative and performance.

HOLTA ÇOTA, DRITAN AJDINAJ, BESNIK HABIPI

1Department of Wood Industry; Agricultural University of Tirana, ALBANIA

e-mail: * hcota@ubt.edu.al, dajdinaj@ubt.edu.al, besnikhabipi@hotmail.com

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Abstract

In this research, the effect of different machining processes on wood surface roughness was studied. There were applied three main furniture manufacturing processes, respectively planning, routing and sanding. The sanding process was applied twice, respectively with 100 and 120 grit sandpapers. The study was focused on two main native wood species, beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and fir (Abies alba Mill.).  The specimen samples were sawn with dimensions 90×8×2 cm, with 11% moisture content. For each machine were processed two specimens from each species. Routing process was carried out after planning, as well as sanding. Sanding process with 120 grit paper was conducted after the 100 grit process, respecting so the processing line applied by manufacturing sector. For measurement of surface roughness was applied the direct contact method. This method reproduces the surface profile by means of contact stylus profilometer, making so possible the calculation of arithmetic mean deviation of the profile, maximum two point height of the profile, mean roughness depth and root-mean-square deviation of the profile. The measurements were performed in ten different clear wood points for each specimen. Results showed that fir wood gave the same class of roughness for all machining processes, respectively 8. Regarding to beech wood, planning and routing processes gave the same roughness class, equal with those of fir, while sanding gave a higher class for both numbers of sandpapers, respectively 9. The results obtained present useful information for furniture manufacturing sector, by the cost effective viewpoint.

Keywords: machinig, wood, furniture, surface, roughness class.

INA VEJSIU, MERITA STAFASANI

Forest  Department, Faculty of Forest Science, Agriculture University of Tirana, ALBANIA

 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food, Agriculture University of Tirana, ALBANIA

e-mail: *inavejsiu@ubt.edu.almstafasani@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract

In the last years, Albania attempted to change his legislation, making possible approach to the European Union standards. A sector which our country push his attention has been the environment sector and in particularly the biodiversity protection. In this reason the government has made several efforts on making policies in the development and management of the Protected Areas and National Parks. The tourism sector an especially ecotourism are manly new industries in the Republic of Albania. The Biodiversity is an attraction for the tourists who visit these specific areas, but is necessary to create touristic guide specialized in this sector and especially in the endemic and sub endemic species. Ecotourism sector development makes pressure in the biodiversity and therefore it requires a qualitative management because besides the economic benefits it constitutes an ongoing threat to the biodiversity in general.

Keywords: Biodiversity, ecotourism, protected areas, strategy.

ENKELEJD LEKAJ, ZYDI TEQJA

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, ALBANIA

*Corresponing author e-mail: enkelejd.leka@gmail.com,

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Abstract

For a long time, people have not seen the necessity of measuring the contribution of nature to public health. Increased stress and sedentary lifestyle, levels of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and respiratory diseases, have raised the interest for scientific studies on the relationship between health and nature. The purpose of this study is to analyze the land cover of Tirana Prefecture and its compound categories: agricultural area, artificial surface, forests and semi-natural areas. The main groups of data used in this study are: Maps of land cover for 2006 and 2012; Tirana and its administrative units’ population according to census of 2011; the digital map of the territorial division of the Republic of Albania of 2015. The goal is to create the main independent variables that can link health data with land cover data. For this purpose, GIS techniques were used. Analysis was performed for all public administrative units of Tirana Prefecture. From land cover analysis for 2006 and 2012 resulted that public administration units Tiranë, Kavajë, Paskuqan, Kamëz, Kashar, Farkë, Krrabë, Rrogozhinë, Bërxullë have lower agricultural area for capita (2,700-1,200,000 m2/1000 inhabitant). The biggest changes in forest surface (decrease of more than 600 m2/1000 inhabitants), during the period 2006 to 2012 have occurred in public administration units of Farkë, Kashar, Paskuqan, Synej, Lekaj, Pezë, Tiranë, Golem, Gosë. These results will be used to study the relationship between nature and public health. They could be used also to orient public policies.

Keywords: Land cover, digital map, GIS, public administration unit.

BRUNILDA ÇUKO, VALBONA SOTA, EFIGJENI KONGJIKA

Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tirana University, Tirana, Albania *

Section of Natural and Technical Sciences, Academy of Sciences, Tirana, Albania

Corresponding author e-mail: cuko.brunilda@gmail.com

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Abstract

Rooting induction appears very difficult, especially regarding to trees species but it’s necessary to stabilize a protocol for in vitro rhizogenesis before the acclimatization stage. These study was carry out to investigate the influence of different doses of auxinic phytohormone NAA (α-naphthaleneacetic acid) and MS nutrients on in vitro rhizogenesis of apple (Malus domestica L.) which is a fruit extremely rich in important antioxidants, flavanoids, and dietary fiber. The induction and improvement of in vitro rhizogenesis of microshoots of two different apple cultivars (cv. Golden Delicious and cv. Starking ) was tested on three nutrient rooting media with different concentrations of NAA and macro- and micronutrients, presented in the universal medium MS: (I) – ½ MS macronutrients, MS micronutrients, MS vitamins supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 NAA; (II) – ½ MS macronutrients, ½ MS micronutrients, MS vitamins with 0.1 mg l-1 NAA and (III) – MS macronutrients, ½ MS micronutrients, MS vitamins with 2 mg l-1 NAA). The first signs of roots formation were detected 10-12 days after inoculation of strongest microshoots of each cultivar of apple. There were detected significant differences in rooting percentage according to the rooting media and the highest value of rooting for both cultivars resulted in the first rooting medium (90.2%). There was not observed significant difference in rooting percentage between two studied cultivars. As the result the first medium with half concentration of MS macronutrients and 0.1 mg l-1 NAA is recommended.

Keywords: rhizogenesis, MS medium, NAA (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid), rooting percentage.

AGIM HAZIRI, SHEVAL MEMISHI, ENVER ZENKU

State University of Tetova, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Rr. Ilindenit, 1200 Tetovo, Macedonia.

*Corresponding author; E-mail: agim.haziri@unite.edu.mk

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Abstract

Vardar River is the largest river in the country. Springs on the slopes of Shara, near the village Vërtok, a few kilometers from the town of Gostivar. Upstream of the Vardar River is characterized by a very interesting aquatic flora and ichthyofaun. Aquatic flora is mostly epilit and epfil character. It is represented by mosses and algae. Encountered within Fontinalis antipyretica and Rhynchostegium riparioides. They are represented by algae Cladophora glomerata and species of genus Voucheria sp. In winter and early spring, rocky surfaces upstream of the river, covered with dense populations mikroflorale, mainly by blue green algae (Cyanophyta) and diatom (Bacillariophyta). As the most common kind of gender separated Nitzschia sp., Which encountered next to the river, mainly as bentosale forms. Ichthyofaun of Vardar River is very rich and is represented by 19 species and subspecies of fish marrow, which can be distinguished: Salmo trutta fario, Salmo macedonicus, Leuciscus cephalus vardarensis, Chondrostoma nasus vardarensis, Cobitis taenia vardarensis, 

etc.

Keywords: River Vardar, aquatic flora, mosses, algae, ichthyofaun, fish.

MARSELA ALIKAJ, FERDI BRAHUSHI

Department of Agro Environment and Ecology, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, “Eqrem Çabej” University, Gjirokastra, Albania

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Abstract

Macrophytes are considered as important component of the aquatic ecosystem since they serve as food source for aquatic invertebrates and can act as efficient accumulator of heavy metals. Current study assesses heavy metals in the sediments and macrophytes of the Viroi lake in Gjirokastra district (south of Albania) in order to find out their possible relationships. Heavy metals like Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb were analyzed in sediments and in dominant macrophytes of the lake. Contamination factors (CF) and degree of contamination (Cdeg) of the sediments with heavy metals were calculated. Obtained data showed that concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments were in following order Fe>Ni>Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd; and these sediments results with low or moderate contamination. The aquatic plants of the lake were not equally effective on removing of heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals in water plants were higher than the values of WHO standard. Furthermore, by using bioconcentration factor (BCF), were indentified aquatic plants as “accumulator” of heavy metals.

Keywords: macrophyte, water, heavy metal, contamination factor, bioconcentration factor.

KALTRINA JUSUFI, MAJLINDA VASJARI, BARDHA KORÇA

University of Prishtina “HasanPrishtina”, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Department of Chemistry, str. “NënaTereze” nr.5, 10000 Prishtina, Kosovo.

University of Tirana, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author; E-mail: kaltrina.jusufi@uni-pr.edu

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Abstract

Life as we know it today would have been very different without electricity. However, in its present form it has proved to be challenging for the environment and more “expensive” once fossil fuels began to be used as sources for electricity production. Power plants that use coal for electricity generation can emit an enormous pollution whose consequences humans and other living organisms can suffer from.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, production of potatoes in 2013 was about 368 million tons, while for cabbage in 2011 was almost 69 million metric tons. The country of study of this paper, Kosovo, is known for cultivation of potatoes and cabbages for domestic and regional supply.

For our study we collected the potato and cabbage samples growing in farmland areas around Kosovo’s power plants. Food samples were first dried at room temperature, milled and treated in the microwave system with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Measurements of heavy metals were done using ICP-OES technique.

From the results obtained we conclude that we are dealing with an average contamination from the areas where the ashes and wastes of power plants of Kosova are deposited.

Keywords: heavy metals, potatoes, ICP/OES

HAIRI ISMAILI,  AIDA DERVISHI2,  PETRIT ÇAKIRRI3

Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania Gene Bank, Tirana Albania

University of Tirana, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Tirana Albania

Olive Experimental Station, Peze e vogel Tirane, Albania

*Corresponding author; E-mail: hismaili@ubt.edu.al.

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Abstract

This research investigated the flower abortion characteristics in the Kushan olive variety (Olea europaea L.). Kushan variety shows forced sterility, ovarian abnormalities and cytogenetic causes in the formation of pollen and the division of chromosomes. The stimultants treatments were done in three trees per treatment as follows: (i) BA 200 ppm, (ii) GA3 200 ppm, (iii) TIBA 200 ppm, (iv) Bor 3g/l (v) Control, Water Treatment. The flowers abortion resulted statistically different. The application of GA3 resulted in 11% fertile flowers more than control group. In conclusion, the ovarian abortion of flowers in the Kushan cultivar depends not only on the anatomical and morphological characteristics of the flower but also on the physiological processes during floral maturation.

Keywords: olive; flower fertility; phytoregulator.

 

EDMOND REXHEPI and HARALLAMB PAÇE

Agricultural University of Tirana;F. A & E; Department of Plant Protection; Tirana, ALBANIA

Corresponding author E-mail: rexhepiedmond@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Apple fruit cultivation is one of the most important cultivated fruit in the region of Gjilan in Kosovo and the cultivated areas are continuously increasing. There are 3-4 main cultivars Starking, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Gala that are being cultivated mostly and other cultivars Jonagold, Fuji and Jonathan that are being planted rapidly. One of the major problems for farmers in this region it remains the managing of fungus disease of Apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Wint.For this purpose, for the first time in Kosovo was used the decision support system RIM-pro (relative infection measure-program).This program simulates the development of pseudothecia, ascospore maturation, discharge, deposition and infection based on hourly received data of weather conditions and leaf wetness from weather station which is set up on the orchard. The aim of this study is to utilize the RIM-pro for best fungicide application time. The experiment is carried out in experimental orchard in Zhegra (Gjilan region) Kosovo, during the year 2015 and the experimental orchard was set up in randomized block, where the main effect factor is the treatment time (A) in 4 levels (RIM-pro time, Phenologicalphases, traditional treatment and control plants), second factor was the effectiveness of combined fungicides (B) in 4 levels. By analyzing the outcome data, it resulted that the treatments performed based on RIMpro had best results than other based performed treatments. The effectiveness of fungicides was determined by the disease index. This study emphasizes the importance of development of one management warning system for the local farmers.

Keywords: RIMpro; apple scab; infection; ascospores; treatments.

 

EDMOND REXHEPI and HARALLAMB PAÇE

Agricultural University of Tirana;F. A & E; Department of Plant Protection; Tirana, ALBANIA

Corresponding author E-mail: rexhepiedmond@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Apple fruit cultivation is one of the most important cultivated fruit in the region of Gjilan in Kosovo and the cultivated areas are continuously increasing. There are 3-4 main cultivars Starking, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Gala that are being cultivated mostly and other cultivars Jonagold, Fuji and Jonathan that are being planted rapidly. One of the major problems for farmers in this region it remains the managing of fungus disease of Apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Wint.For this purpose, for the first time in Kosovo was used the decision support system RIM-pro (relative infection measure-program).This program simulates the development of pseudothecia, ascospore maturation, discharge, deposition and infection based on hourly received data of weather conditions and leaf wetness from weather station which is set up on the orchard. The aim of this study is to utilize the RIM-pro for best fungicide application time. The experiment is carried out in experimental orchard in Zhegra (Gjilan region) Kosovo, during the year 2015 and the experimental orchard was set up in randomized block, where the main effect factor is the treatment time (A) in 4 levels (RIM-pro time, Phenologicalphases, traditional treatment and control plants), second factor was the effectiveness of combined fungicides (B) in 4 levels. By analyzing the outcome data, it resulted that the treatments performed based on RIMpro had best results than other based performed treatments. The effectiveness of fungicides was determined by the disease index. This study emphasizes the importance of development of one management warning system for the local farmers.

Keywords: RIMpro; apple scab; infection; ascospores; treatments.

DORIANA ( BODE) XHULAJ*, VALBONA HOBDARI, DESTEMONA SHEHU, BELUL GIXHARI, FETAH ELEZI

Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, Agricultural University of Tirana

*Corresponding author e-mail: d.xhulaj@yahoo.com

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the agronomic characteristics of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm, maintained  in ex situ collection at Plant Genetic Resources Institute (PGRI), Agricultural University of Tirana. Total of 100 wheat accessions were planted under field condition and their agro morphological characters (14 quantitative traits) such us, plant height, spike length, 100 kernel weight, days to maturity were recorded. The results show that the highest value of plant height trait was recorded in AGB 0150 accession (167 cm), meanwhile two accession recorded the highest number of spikelet per spike ±25.8 ( AGB 0013 and AGB 0138). Positive correlation are observed among descriptors, as number of kernel per spike and kernel weight trait (r=0.85), also data show positive relation (r=0.529) between spike length and number of spikelet for spike. The divergence between accessions was observed using Cluster analyze. The accessions were gathered in 6 major groups (cluster 5 with 38 accessions and cluster 2 with 27 accessions). Based on this analyse accessions in cluster 2 and 5 were the nearest neighbour with the lowest divergence levels meanwhile wheat genotype grouped in cluster 3 and 4 presented the farthest one.

KeywordsTriticum aestivum L., germplasm, accessions, agro morphological, trait, cluster.

Nefrus ҪELIKU, Nikollaq BARDHI, Zydi TEQJA, Albert KOPALI, Qatip DODA, Dilaman NELAJ

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Economy, Republic of

Macedonia

Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

Agriculture and Food Department of Dibra Prefecture, Albania

Agriculture and Food Department of Kukësi Prefecture, Albania

Corresponding author e-mail:bardhi.nikoll@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Basil is one of the aromatic plants with wide range of use. Because of the chemical composition, it is used in perfumery, culinary, food industry, toothpastes, and in the production of soaps, shampoo and medicine [2]. It is cultivated in many countries in the open fields (in warmer climates) and in greenhouses.In Albania, it is been cultivated since 1958 in Levan, Fier for domestic use and for export.After 1990 it was cultivated by several farmers in Elbasan, Lushnje, Fier and Përmet. The production of fresh mass is processed by companies of medical aromatic plants for the production of essence and for the production of tomato sauce. Based on the values of use, the three-year study was undertaken for the five subspecies of basil. The study includes five subspecies of basil: Limonez, Napolitan, Red basil, Finoverde (greco) and Genoves. The study was set up in Toshkëz- Lushnje, according the randomized block scheme, with five variants in four repetitions. The biometric measurements were made on the plant height, the yield of floral, the leaves and herbs, the dry stalks [6]. There are observed verified differences among subspecies of basil.

Key words: Basil, matter, dry, herb, floral, leaf, stalk, yield, variant.

STELA RUCI,  DENADA KASEMI, SAJMIR BEQIRAJ

Department of Plant Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of  Agriculture and Environment,  Agriculture University of Tirana, Albania

Departament of Biology, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University “Ismail Qemali” Vlorë

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Albania

*Corespnding author E-mail: rucistela@gmail.com; sruci@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract

This paper represents seasonal comparisons of the characteristics of macrozoobenthic assemblages from the shallow rocky areas of the Adriatic Sea in Albania. Sampling has been carried out in four areas, namely Shën Pjetër, Kallm, Spille and Triport, in Spring, Summer and Autumn 2011, in very shallow water, including the supralittoral, mediolittoral and upper limit of infralittoral.  The groups with the highest presence and abundance were mollusks of the families Patellidae, Trochidae, Cerithiidae, Buccinidae and Columbellidae, crustaceans of the families Cancridae, the echinoderms Arbaciidae and the cnidarians Actiniidae. Trochid gastropods had the highest abundance in all sites and in all sampled seasons. Species composition, abundance and their seasonal differences have been analyzed in a comparative way between the four studied areas. A possible important factor influencing the species presence and quantitative characteristics of macrozoobenthic assemblages, as well as their seasonal differences in the studied areas seems to be closely related to the algal cover.

Keywords: Macrozoobenthos,  rocky coast, hard bottoms, Adriatic Sea, Albania.

 

RASKA GEORGIEV, VANIA DIMOVA, KRASIMIRA UZUNOVA, PLAMENA ATANASOVA ANNA KARKELOVA, MARINA TOSHESKA

Department “Agricultural Engineering”, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Thrace, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Department “Animal Husbandry” Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

DVM, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lazar Pop Trajkov 5-7, 1000 Skopje

*Corresponding author E-mail: mira60bg@yahoo.com

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Abstract

The study aims to determine the optimum thickness of the roof construction of a facility for gilts when different fuel for heating are used and various kinds of insulation. The presented methodology helps to determine the annual energy losses through a 1 m2 of roof construction. In analyses are taken into consideration various types of heat insulation as insulating sandwich – panels of plasticized LT-layered tin of thermal insulation with EPS, XPS and mineral wool. Annual cost for heat insulation is calculated as the sum of annual energy costs and depreciation for insulation. The obtained results show that the use of fuel – a dry timber at – appropriate thickness of the thermal insulation are: for EPS and mineral wool – 100 mm; for XPS – 80 mm, and  when Bobovdol coal is using appropriate thickness of the thermal insulation are: for EPS – 140 mm; for  XPS and mineral wool – 100 mm respectively.

Keywords: facility’s roofs, sows, energy losses, annual costs

SOKRAT JANI, and LIRI MIHO

Plant Genetic Resources Institute (PGRI), Agricultural University of Tirana (AUT), Albania.

Department of Agro-Environment and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, AUT, Albania.

*Correspondence author. E-mail: sokratjani@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) is cultivated in all home gardeners of the Albanian Alps area, mainly for domestic consumption. The growing presence of tourists in the area has increased the interest in the vegetable production.  Because farmers are supplied with seedlings from areas far from their location, some cultivars without any scientific documentation are cultivated with poor yield and susceptible to various disease and frost damage. Farmers are looking for cultivars suitable for the area and seeking to produce local tomato varieties in order to attract consumers to retail farm operations. The existing tomato germplasm from Alps area was morpho-genetically characterized and agro-economically assessed during 2016 at experimental field of PGRI, AUT, to determine the variability among the cultivars. The purpose of the investigation was to document the germplasm for the future and to test production characteristics and their fresh market suitability in Alps area. The comparison was based on yield and growth characters, including plant height (153-198 cm), trusses per plant (4.2-8.6) flowers  per truss (7.4 -13.4),  flowers per plant (31- 95), fruits per truss (4.4- 8.8), number of fruits per plant (18.5-65.0), fruit size (30.8-65.0 mm),  locules per fruit (2-4), and fruits weight (24.5 -137.0 g), found significant variability among cultivars. The investigation indicated that genetic diversity does exist among indigenous cultivars and the germplasm could be utilized for breeding new varieties suitable for the area and identified those that have the potential of fulfilling the specialty market niche.

Keywords: characterization, evaluation, yield and growth characters.

MATILDA SHEHU, ZHANETA ZEKAJ (TROJANI), Lefter Kashta

Department of Biology, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Vlora “Ismail Qemali”, L. Pavarësia, Rr. Kosova, 9400 Vlorë, Albania. 

Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Blv. Zogu i I, Tiranë, Albania

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Blv. Zogu i I, Tiranë, Albania

*Corresponding author, e-mail: matildazeqo@gmail.com

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Abstract

In this study Leucojum ionicum was considered in two habitats never studied before: Dhërmi and Palasë. The morphological and histological traits were studied, and comparison between these two populations was made. The technique used for the analysis of epidermal structures is the standard technique of nail polish, which consists in obtaining stomatal traces in the upper and lower epidermis. From the analysis of morphological traits it resulted that in both habitats L. ionicum appears with the same morphological traits only with small differences in leaf area. Comparing the distribution of stomata, was observed variation between the two populations. In Palasa individuals, distribution of stomata results a little bit higher than in Dhërmi individuals. SI (stomatal index) and SD (stomatal density) results higher in Palasa population with small differences from Dhermi population. We encountered also variation in stomatal morphology. Stomata in individuals of Dhërmi population appears larger in size and with angles being more distinct than stomata in the individuals of Palasa population. This explains the reason why the population of Palasa had a higher number of stomata/field.

Keywords: Leucojum ionicum, morphological traits, histological traits, stomatal index, stomatal density, stomata.

Nasuf Abdii , Murat Xhulaj

State University of Tetovo, Department of Biology

University of Tirana, Department of Biology

E-mail: nasufabdii@gmail.com; mxhulaj @yahoo.com

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Abstract

Sharr Mountain presents a variety of geological forms, reliefs, rich hydro network, splicing of Continental factors and Mediterranean, creation of microclimates etc. which create conditions for development and housing of a value of a flora for Geno fond, as well as for creating cohabitation of interesting plant communities, and existence of diverse natural habitats.

The Massif of Sharr Mountain stands for a great variety of habitats, which represent the settlements for about 2,000 plant species. Or 2/3 of higher plants of Macedonia. In the Massif of Sharr Mountain are about 200 endemic and non-endemic species which make Sharr to stand as an important center of Balkan and European mountain endemism.

Sharr Mountain as a result of the great diversity of ecological, geomorphological, hydrologic, conditions, etc. stands out as a country with rich flora. “Flora of Macedonia reports 3250 species, of which about 80% of the species are found in the flora of Sharr Mountain.

In this paper are given data of the 4 years study (2013-20116) for “Flora and its values in the Sharr Mountain Massif – Macedonia”.

The study is undertaken for the first time, in particular within the Flora of Macedonia, which will complement the study of the Flora in Sharr Mountain. The study is focused on 20 stations in the Shar Mountain. The collection of scientific material is made from early spring until late autumn of this year. During this study it was accumulated a rich material of flora associated with data about the site it was found, the time of collection, habitat, etc.

From the systematic-ecological evaluation of the flora of Sharr Mountain turns out that the flora of this mountain massif is rich with numerous species. The set material consists of 94 families, 411 genus and about 1045 species.

The analysis so far shows that the flora of Sharr Mountain massif represents a major scientific value of floristic composition, chorological, bio forms, endemic species, endangered relicts and economically valuable species.

Keywords: Sharr Mountain, Flora, endemic, relict, botanical evaluation.

MIMOZA MUKAJ,  SOFIANA MAI, MAGDALENA CARA, THANAS RUCI

Albanian Customs Laboratory, General Customs Directory

Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana

Institute of Food Safety and Veterinary

*Corresponding author; E-mail: mimoza.mukaj@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Over the past century, there has been a wide use of pesticides in agricultural products. However, only 10 % of pesticides reach the target, and the other part is spreaded in the air, soil and water. Although, pesticides save farmers’ time and money, they are known for having negative effects on human health and environment, while the soil contamination with Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) pesticides is very alarming. It is evident, that due to its large retention capacity for hydrophobic compounds, soil is used as an effective sink for POPs pesticides and it plays an important role in the global distribution and fate of these chemicals. The soil properties, like pH and temperature, influence the degradation rates of pesticides. The most favourable soil pH for the best degradation of pesticides is around 7.

The goal of this paper is to study the correlation between soil pH and the concentration of POPs pesticides. In this study we have included some farms of agricultural areas in Albania. A total of 72 samples were collected in the period of June – December 2015. We have determined the pH of soil with pH meter and POPs pesticide residues with Gas chromatography techniques. The values of pH ranged from 5.7 to 8.34, and the values of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane(DDT) residues ranged from 0.1 to 220.69 µg/kg. From this study resulted that in general, in soils with pH < 7, the concentration of DDT was lower than the concentration of DDT in soils with pH > 7.

Keywords: POPs pesticides; pH – meter; Gas chromatography.

Nazmi AJAZI; Vath TABAKU; Hasan CANI; Xhenisa  AJAZI

Dajti Eksspres sh..a

Faculty of Science Forest

Balkan Center for Cooperation  Development (BCCD) ;

Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism of Tirana, Environment Department

Coresponding author e-mail: nazmiajazi@gmail.com

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Abstract:

The walnut is a species that is extensively cultivated in Dibra district of the Albanian Republic. According to the registers hold up to 2008 in the respective localities there are 196 ha with 2670 fruit-trees. This specie is extended along Valley of Black- Drini River, over the bottoms of the slopes, along the creeks and the small deltas of the creeks as Malla and Seta of Lura, Zalli of Okshtun, the creek of Kuben, Erebare etc. It is distinguished for the high quality of its product that is preferred in the native market and abroad. The inhabitants have a tradition to treat this very important specie on the bottoms of cultivated soils.

The history of its cultivation dates back from antiquity and the inhabitants think they are grown together with this fruit-tree during centuries.  In a village of Gjurre – Rec 60 % of fruit-growing  is covered with this natural specie. It grows in surfaces from 360 in Doda’s bridge, up to 1000 m above sea level (in Fushe Lura – Bellova -Ostren etc.). The best development it has in 400 up to 700 m above sea level where  is included  the phytoclimatical zone of Castanetum and  needs aired and loosed soils. Almost in all the district it cannot be found  in group, except the village Peladhi where it has been sown during the time of collectivization from the ex-Agricultural Cooperative of Zerqan. In our study, made during some years, we have found some cultivars which have some differ characteristics as “large grain”, “oblong”,in “cluster form”etc.  It needs mainly brown and abandoned forest soils which in Dibra district are very widespread.

Keywords: specie, cultivation, level, valley, fruit

EDLIRA BARAJ, ARMINA GJOKA, RAIMONDA LILO (TOTONI), ROZA ALLABASHI

Department of Chemistry, FIMIF, Polytechnic University of Tirana.

Faculty of Geology and Mining, Polytechnic University of Tirana.

BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna; Department of Water Atmosphere and Environment, Institute of Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control

e-mail: edlirabaraj@yahoo.co.ukarminagjoka@yahoo.comrtotoni@gmail.comroza.allabashi@boku.ac.at

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Abstract

There is a complete legal framework at EU level, providing for the establishment of integrated water management systems in all Member States. Substantial part of this legislation concerning water resource management and monitoring has been transposed so far in Albania, although an adequate monitoring system as part of the integrated water management system, is still far from being established and fully operational. The purpose of this work is to provide an overview of water resource management in Albania, with a particular focus on the assessment of water monitoring system, based on the EU legislation and Austrian practice. Several problems and concerns regarding the degree of implementation of EU directives, particularly of Water Framework Directive (WFD), such as the discrepancies in the coordination between institutions; lack of sufficient and appropriate financial means; imperative need for the development of modern laboratory infrastructure, distributed in an artery-like network in order to monitor water resources; necessity for more qualified and trained staff, lack of an electronic database, and the need for raising awareness and participation of the public in decision-making process related to environmental issues, have been observed. Based on EU legislation (WFD) in general, and the Austrian practice in particular, recommendations for establishing the water monitoring system in Albania according to EU standards and laws have been also presented.

Keywords: Water Framework Directive, water monitoring system

 

NEHAT ÇOLLAKU, ELVIN TOROMANI, VALBONA SIMIXHIU, ERION ISTREFI

Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Forestry Sciences, Forestry Department, Tirana, Albania

Ministry of Environment, Tirana, Project of Environment Services, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author e-mail: nehatcollaku@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract

The analysis of the present state of nature and the impacts of the land use in the Divjaka National Park, aimed to identify its  scenarios for the future development. The used methodology was Land Use Planning Process (LUPP), which consists on the systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternatives for land use and economic and social conditions  in order to select the best land use options. For this diagnosis, we have collected the relevant information on the situation of the land, land use, biodiversity and the socio-economic framework conditions. The applied methods during the fieldwork comprised site and vegetation surveys on selected sample plots and open interviews with local representatives of the major interest groups. The collected data served as the basis for the following planning process. Following the “FAO Guidelines for land – use planning 1993”, there were distinguished the major different land mapping units (LMUs) and their qualities, as well the major land utilization types (LUTs) and their requirements. The results show that in the Divjaka National Park there were distinguished 9 LMUs and 8 LUTs. Through the matching of the LMUs with the LUTs, the potential land use situation was compared to the actual, there were identified the major land use conflicts. Based on the land use planning carried out in the Divjaka National Park,  there are proposed three different scenarios for possible future development, focused on: a. Maximum Tourism Development; b. Strict Nature Protection; c. Integrated Ecotourism Concept.

Keyword: land use planning, analysis, land units, assessment, conflicts, scenarios.

Tatjana Kokaj,  Adriatik Çakalli, Hair Ismaili

Agriculture University of Tirana/ Institute of Plant Genetic Resource

Corresponding author e-mail: tkoka@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L ) belongs to the family Punicaceae and is widespread in Albania. This research was intended, to discover the effect of AIB (indole acid buturik), for development of meristems, rooting of three main forms pomegranate, Shg: cv 11/1; 13/1 Shg, Shg 14/1. The method was application with plant material obtained from the wood scion bare pieces, in situ, in Lezha, Shkodra and Tepelene in late January – early February time. The pieces scions have been 10-12 cm dimensions. and eventually they settled in two variant: (i) no treatment control, (ii) 2 hours 1000ppm IBA to be treated about 1.5 cm at the base of the pieces. The pieces are left to dry by the alcohol vapors and then planted in warm bank with perlite substrate. The hygroscopic watering which realisated once time for every day with 1 minute. Results of pieces scions rooting after 90 days have been visible changes between forms and two variants (Cv = 21.3). In generally, three forms have been percent rotting about 90% versus 70 percent in terms control. The percentage of indigenization was in the varieties in correlation,  r = 0.82 and r = IBA presence of 0.89.

Keywords: screenhouse, Punica granatum, sample, plot, perlit

BESNIK HABIPI, DRITAN AJDINAJ, HAZBI BIÇAKU

Department of Wood Industry; Agricultural University of Tirana, ALBANIA

“EUROBIÇAKU” sh.p.k.; Autostrada Dr-Tr, Mbikalimi Fllakë, Durrës, ALBANIA

e-mail: * besnikhabipi@hotmail.comdajdinaj@ubt.edu.albiku@eurobicaku.com

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Abstract

In this research, the effect of different pressing temperatures on overlaying quality of membrane presses was studied. There were applied six pressing temperatures for overlaying medium density fibreboard with polyvinyl chloride film, respectively 80°C, 85°C, 90°C, 95°C, 100°C and 105°C. These temperatures were lower than those usually applied, which range between 110°C and 120°C. The pressing time continued in total 2 minutes and the pressure applied by air was 6 bars. The PVC film was 0.4 mm thick and weighted 2.5 kg/m2. The MDF to be overlaid was with density 790 kg/m3. There were produced 8 pieces for each temperature, in total 48, with dimensions 12×12 cm. After 72 hours, from each piece was sawn one sample from central zone, with dimensions 5×5 cm. For measurement of surface soundness was applied the method specified by the standard EN 311. This method measures the overlaying quality by means of tensile force through a steel axe, glued with MDF sample with PU adhesive. Resultes showed that temperatures 80°C and 85°C totally failed to achive a strong bond between MDF and PVC foil. The temperature 90°C failed in 75% of tested pieces, while temperature 95°C failed in 25% of them. The two highest temperatures gave a strong bond for all samples, resulting to MDF substrate destruction. The results obtained present useful information for furniture manufacturing sector, by the cost effective viewpoint.

Keywords: pressing temperature, membrane press, PVC, overlaying.

AZEM BARDHI ,GRAMOZ  RAMOLLARI.

Department of Climate and Environment, Institute of Geosciences, Energy, Water and Environment, Polytechnic

University, Tirana.Albania.

2Technology Transfer Center of Agricultural Fushe – Kruje,Albania.

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Abstract

This paper  presents soilerosion situation, is based on the study of erosion as one of the most widespread forms of physical degradation of the soil.  It focuses on several factors, natural and anthropogenic most significant impact on this phenomenon, as texture of the soil, precipitation and their intensity, the degree  and length of slopesAs well as, through their environment analysis from a GIS program,   gives a spatial distribution and  the values ​​of this phenomenon for the Albanian territory. The results are reflected in the creation of two maps with a scale of 1: 200 000, which shows a spatial distribution of the values ​​of current and potential erosion based on a predetermined scale evaluation according to the project methodology. This methodology combines in an innovative way the  study of traditional elements that affect the erosion phenomenon with a new element; – the coverage of land under the CORINE program. Maps clearly show areas where erosion is presented at low levels and “hot – spots” where the situation is more problematic.

Keywords: erosion,soil,texture,slope, erodibility,cover.

PRANVERA MZIU, OLIVER  LEKAJ , BESNIK GJONGECAJ

M.Sc., PhD student.,Department of Agro-environment and Ecology, Agricultural University of Tirana, Kodër Kamëz, Tirana, Albania.

Prof. Dr., Department of Agro-environment and Ecology, Agricultural University of Tirana, Kodër Kamëz, Tirana, Albania.

*Corresponding author E-mail bgjongecaj@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract

At the centre of this study is the determination of the erodibility factor, which is known as K factor in the Wischmeier universal equation of soil loss. It could be determined experimentally, in local conditions, or by deriving from the factors determining it. Before any determination or any quantifying, it should bear in mind that the erodibility factor is a physical quantity, which depends on the soil physical properties. So, it is an inherent property of soil itself. Experimentally, it can be derived from the Wischmeier universal equation of soil loss by measuring all other factors of the equation, turning it into an equation with one unknown: soil erodibility. In a large scale, soil erodibility would be determined by measuring four factors closely related with the soil physical status: soil texture, soil structure, soil permeability, and soil organic matter. In the presented study, soil erodibility factor was determined in the second way and for the entire country of Albania. About twenty nine experimental plots were used to measure the above mentioned factors determining K factor. The equation used was that of Wischmeier and a mathematical model was created just for doing the right calculations. The K factor was found to be between 0.0137  to  0.441, which means that there is a large variation in Albanian soils according to their behavior towards the erodibility, or finally, towards erosion. Based on the results found, a map is produced, in which, it is clearly indicated the way the soils with various capacity to resist to erosion are spread throughout Albania. The zones characterized by high potential of erosion correspond with the zones where the majority of silt rich soils occur, as the zones with low potential erosion correspond with the zones where the majority of light and heavy soils occur.

Keywords: soil erodibility factor, soil inherent (intrinsic) property, silt rich soils, high potential erosion, soil physical properties.

ARTA LUGAJ1 BLERTA LAZE2 MARC MERTENS3 MARTIN H. GROSCHUP3 ISOLDE SCHUSTER3 KRISTAQ BERXHOLI4

1-2Department of Biology, “Ismail Qemali” University of Vlora, Albania

3Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald, Germany

4Department of Veterinary Public Health, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

Corresponding author e-mail: lugajarta@gmail.com

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Abstract

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral zoonosis which occurs widely in Africa, Eastern Europe, and Asia within the distribution range of ticks of the genus Hyalomma. The CCHF virus (CCHFV) belongs to the Nairovirus genus (family Bunyaviridae) and causes a severe disease in humans, with a reported mortality rate of 3–30%. The geographic range of CCHFV is the most extensive of the medically significant tick-borne viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of CCHFV among the cattle, sheep and goats in Kolonje-Erseke region of Albania. This survey was carried out in 2013. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 54 cattles, 29 sheep and 9 goats. The samples were immediately taken to the laboratory and their serum separated by centrifugation with 3500 rpm in 10 minutes. The sera were kept in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University of Tirana, at -20°C until analysis. They were tested with an immunological method using indirect ELISA at Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Greifswald Germany. Through this technique it was possible to identify CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in serum samples of infected animals. From these results we had an indication about the prevalence of CCHF infection respectively, 7,4% in cattles, 96,5% in sheep and 88.8% in goats. This study can clearly confirms the presence of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) in a high level 64,2% in livestock in Kolonje-Erseke region of Albania.

Keywords: CCHFV, Hyalomma, Indirect ELISA, IgG antibodies, FLICrimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral zoonosis which occurs widely in Africa, Eastern Europe, and Asia within the distribution range of ticks of the genus Hyalomma. The CCHF virus (CCHFV) belongs to the Nairovirus genus (family Bunyaviridae) and causes a severe disease in humans, with a reported mortality rate of 3–30%. The geographic range of CCHFV is the most extensive of the medically significant tick-borne viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of CCHFV among the cattle, sheep and goats in Kolonje-Erseke region of Albania. This survey was carried out in 2013. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 54 cattles, 29 sheep and 9 goats. The samples were immediately taken to the laboratory and their serum separated by centrifugation with 3500 rpm in 10 minutes. The sera were kept in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University of Tirana, at -20°C until analysis. They were tested with an immunological method using indirect ELISA at Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Greifswald Germany. Through this technique it was possible to identify CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in serum samples of infected animals. From these results we had an indication about the prevalence of CCHF infection respectively, 7,4% in cattles, 96,5% in sheep and 88.8% in goats. This study can clearly confirms the presence of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) in a high level 64,2% in livestock in Kolonje-Erseke region of Albania.

Keywords: CCHFV, Hyalomma, Indirect ELISA, IgG antibodies, FLI

Aurora Bakaj1*, Entela Ruci (Kulla)2, Jonida Kalaja2

1* Biology Department University, Ismail Qemali, Vlore, Albania

 2 Regional Department of Public Health, Durrës

*Corresponding author, e-mail: aurorabakaj@yahoo.com

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Abstract

The microbial water quality of coastal beaches located in Durres, were monitored from January to December 2014 – 2015. Water samples were taken from 18 stations eventually distributed on this coast line. Fecal coliform and E. coli was estimated using standard Coliform MPN test. This test for fecal coliforms was determined by fermentation test on lactose broth for preliminary test, and on brilliant green bile confirmatory test.  E. coli and fecal coliforms counts, showed a seasonal dependence, with highest values in summer and autumn suggesting a negative relationship with rainfall and a positive relationship with temperature. This could be due to the high number of people visiting the beaches in the coast line during summer time. Out of the 18 stations monitored only three showed the poorest water quality so the highest level of coliform and E. coli. The poorest water quality is especially in the urban discharged points and in the areas close to them.

Keywords: E. coli, fecal coliforms, monitoring; microbial indicators, water quality.

ALKETA ZEQIRI¹*, REXHEP UKA

Plant Protection Dep., Agricultural University of Tirana.

*Coresponding author e-mail: zeqiri.alketa@gmail.com

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Abstract

During the recent years, with the development of fruit growing and fruit cultivation, the study of pests and their status in stone fruit trees in Albania is a crucial moment to realize an adequate strategy not only for the protection of plant health but also of integrated production. Except homoptera pests of fruit trees, during this study it was done also an inventoryof stone fruit trees affected by them, for example: Pseudoaulacaspispentagona (Targioni-Tozzeti) found in peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, almond, plum; Quadraspidiotusperniciosus (Comstock) found in peaches and cherries; Phorodonpruni (Ferrari) found in plum; Pterochloroidespersicae (Cholodkovsky) found in peach and nectarine; Aulacaspisrosae(Bouche) found in the cherry and plum; Sphaerolecaniumprunastri (Boyer de Fonscolombe) found in plum, etc.Collection of insect pests was carried out in certain periods throughout the year, mainly during the vegetation period. Through this inventory, there were defined kinds of aphids that affect stone fruit trees. As aphids are vectors of different viral diseases, there were also determined the viral diseases that these insect pests spread on plants. Among the most prominent species are: green peach aphid (Myzuspersicae), which is a main vector of many viruses in fruit trees, is found each year in the form of a colony; Leaf-curling plum aphid (Brachycaudushelichrysi), which is a vector of the plum pox virus, etc. Collection and identification of entomophag species of homoptera pest of stone fruit trees is an important part of the research through this year. Further inventory of insect pests of stone fruit trees, in the future will help to implement in the most appropriate time of the measures to suppress them.

Keywords: insect pests, aphid, viral disease, stone fruit trees.

AJTEN BERXOLLI, SHPEND SHAHINI

Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania.

* E-mail address: ajten_b2005@yahoo.com; shpend.shahini@gmail.com;

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Abstract

In climatic conditions of Albania, tomato crop is attacked by a various number of pests, which are divided in primary and secondary pests. Now tomato growers have a serious problem in their farms caused by tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), which is a harmful pest of tomato originating from South America. Firstly it was detected in eastern Spain and after that, it rapidly was distributed in various other European countries and spread throughout the Mediterranean basin. In the lack of control measures, the percentage of damage caused by this pest on tomato in greenhouses and open-field can achieve up to 90% of production. To increase the performance of control, it is very important to know biological cycle as well as its ecology. Using of proper and compatible methods is the best way to control this pest by reducing of pesticide using. Based on our monitoring using pheromone traps both in greenhouses and open-field, Tuta absoluta gives more than four to five generations accompanying whole the vegetation period of the tomato crop. Tuta absoluta is distributed all over the coastal area of Albania. The more distributed and causing damages is second crop which often is damaged totally. Using of chemical pesticides until now resulted not effective, excepted Spinosad. Mass capture technique used in our conditions has resulted very effective. So, we recommended using it for controlling of this serious pest of tomato crop.

Key words: Tomato, Tuta absoluta, control, pheromone, mass capture.

RIFAT MORINA, BAHTIR HYSENI, ALUSH MUSAJ*

Faculty of Food Technology, University of Mitrovica “Isa Boletini” Mitrovice, PIM Trepca 40000 MitroviceKosove

*Corresponding author e-mail: :alush.musaj@umib.net;

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Abstract

The oxidation of lipids is fundamental reactions in food chemistry, and oxidation of lipids has several consequences for food quality.  The most important factor of shelf life of meat is its oxidative stability. Lipid oxidation not only produces unpleasant flavours and loose of it native colour, but also decrease the nutritional quality. Nitrates are added to the meat products, like bacon, salami or sausage for colouring them and extending shelf live. The chilli pepper i added to make it spicy and works as an antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation. The oxidation of meat products is an chemical oxidation of fat promoted by oxygen, light, high temperature, metal traces. We measured the oxidation with Oxitest reactor, with accelerating two factors, increasing the temperature up to 90 degree and oxygen pressure up to 6 Bar. The instrument measures the absolute pressure change inside the chambers, and monitoring the oxygen uptake and automatically generates an IP value. Aim of the study is to measure the oxidative stability of salami and others products of meat. Results obtained from oxitest shows that the nitrates and chilli peppers effects the oxidation stability of meat products. Compare with raw material which has low oxidation stability.

Keywords; Meat, salami, nitrates, chilli pepers, oxitest

ALMA IMERI, LIRIKA KUPE, ELISABETH GROSS, ALMA SHEHU, JULIAN SHEHU

Department of Plant Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

Laboratoire Interdisciplinary des Environments Continentaux (LIEC) UMR 7360 CNRS, Université de Lorraine

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Albania.

*Corresponding author e-mail: bioalma_79@yahoo.com

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Abstract

We use aquatic plants to analyze the heavy metal pollution of a lake environment; they have a number of advantages over the standard chemical methods of the analysis of metal presence in lakes.  The macrophyta Chara tomentosa L., sampled from Lake Ohrid in Macedonian part, has been used as a bio-indicator. It can accumulate metals from water. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Ni, Fe and Pb) was examined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer in Ohrid lake samples of two different depths. This is a first experience for this specie in Ohrid Lake, and I am interested with these results to monitor, at some other sites.  The experimental results clearly shows that Fe and Ni were the metals found in higher concentration followed by Cr and Cu whilst Pb and Cd were found in low levels. Concentration of all studied metals resulted to be higher in plant species collected at 5 m depth compared to that sampled at 10 m depth (a = 0.05) except for Pb and Cd, which contents did not represent significant variation in different depths (a = 0.05). Chara tomentosa can accumulate heavy metal ions from the sediment as well as from the water were they grow.

Key words: Chara tomentosa, bioaccumulation, heavy metals, Ohrid Lake.

DAFINA LLUGAXHIU1, ALUSH MUSAJ2*

PhD candidate – Yeditepe University, Institute of Science and Technology, Biotechnology Department, Istanbul, Turkey

2Faculty of Food Technology, University of Mitrovica “Isa Boletini” – Republic of Kosovo

*Corresponding author e-mail: alush.musaj@umib.net

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Abstract

The wastewater dairy is one of the most sources for pollution of the environment due to dairy’s high organic content. The main idea of this project has been starting the treatment of wastewater in the dairy industry. Based on the initial analysis that were performed there, we have identified the whey is the main problem of that pollution. Due to needed high capacity and high cost for treatment of the whey, this dairy decided to change the whey’s flow, not discharge in the same direction with wastewater. It uses SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) system. This system fills and draws activated sludge for the treatment of water. The water is treated to remove undesirable components, and then discharged. The parameters which are measured for this treatment are physical and chemical parameters. The oxygen values are measured by the oxygen meter. Temperature and pH are measured by the thermometer and pH meter. Biochemical demand Oxygen and chemical demand oxygen is very important parameters for measurement. BOD analysis was performed by the Manometric method or Oxitop instrument. COD analysis were performed by the method 8000 based on DR 2800 Spectrophotometer procedure. Other chemical parameters are measured by DR 2800 Spectrophotometer procedures manual as well. Total suspended solids and volatile suspended solids were prepared by gravimetric method. According to the results obtained from those parameters, we can conclude the effect of treatment of wastewater in the aeration system. We have reached to decrease the values of those parameters leading those to desired values for dairy industry.

Keywords: influent, effluent, BOD, COD, TSS, SVI.

VALBONA SOTA1, BRUNILDA ÇUKO1, EFIGJENI KONGJIKA2

1Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tirana University, Tirana, Albania

2Section of Natural and Technical Sciences, Academy of Sciences, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author; bona_sota@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Salinity stress is a critical environmental constraint to crop productivity for most species. Wheat is one of the most important species of cereals used for food and feed, as well as in the bio ethanol industry, but is intolerable to high salinity conditions resulting in decreased yield. In the present study was evaluated salinity effect (NaCl) on five wheat cultivars (U2, U10/15, Progresi, Dajti and LVS). As primary explants were used zygotic embryos cultivated on MS media and for organogenesis induction were tested two types of PGRs, BAP and 2,4-D (2 mg/l each). The derived explants were cultivated on MS media combined with 2 mg/l BAP and 0.2 mg/l NAA. In this stage was evaluated salinity stress where were investigated three NaCl levels compared with control (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM). Significant differences were noticed among the cultivars followed by different NaCl levels. The salt stress significantly influenced the plantlets growth which was reduced gradually with the increase of salinity from 0 to 200 mM NaCl. All the cultivars survived at 50 mM NaCl concentration. Only the plantlets of Progresi and LVS survived 100 mM NaCl concentration, meanwhile none of them survived at higher concentrations of NaCl. In most cases, the control was found superior in growth characterized than rest of the tested NaCl levels.

Keywords: salt stress, NaCl, in vitro culture, wheat, MS medium, PGRs

VALBONA SOTA1, BRUNILDA ÇUKO1, EFIGJENI KONGJIKA2

1Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tirana University, Tirana, Albania

2Section of Natural and Technical Sciences, Academy of Sciences, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author; bona_sota@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Salinity stress is a critical environmental constraint to crop productivity for most species. Wheat is one of the most important species of cereals used for food and feed, as well as in the bio ethanol industry, but is intolerable to high salinity conditions resulting in decreased yield. In the present study was evaluated salinity effect (NaCl) on five wheat cultivars (U2, U10/15, Progresi, Dajti and LVS). As primary explants were used zygotic embryos cultivated on MS media and for organogenesis induction were tested two types of PGRs, BAP and 2,4-D (2 mg/l each). The derived explants were cultivated on MS media combined with 2 mg/l BAP and 0.2 mg/l NAA. In this stage was evaluated salinity stress where were investigated three NaCl levels compared with control (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM). Significant differences were noticed among the cultivars followed by different NaCl levels. The salt stress significantly influenced the plantlets growth which was reduced gradually with the increase of salinity from 0 to 200 mM NaCl. All the cultivars survived at 50 mM NaCl concentration. Only the plantlets of Progresi and LVS survived 100 mM NaCl concentration, meanwhile none of them survived at higher concentrations of NaCl. In most cases, the control was found superior in growth characterized than rest of the tested NaCl levels.

Keywords: salt stress, NaCl, in vitro culture, wheat, MS medium, PGRs

Seed seedling relations in two very distinct Aegilops accessions

VJOLLCA IBRO*, MOLTINE PREBIBAJ, ALMA AXHANI

Department of Plant Sciences and Technologies, DPST; Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, FAE; Agriculture University of Tirana, AUT

*Corresponding author e-mail: vibro@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract  

The genus Aegilops includes about 20 identified species. At present, it is more and more accepted the idea that different Aegilops, as relatives of wheat, can serve as suitable materials in wheat genetic improvement. This is very important, especially in creating wheat lines or cultivars with high resistance to abiotic stresses and diseases. Researchers of the DPST, for several years continue the ex situ and laboratory  evaluations on 24 Aegilops accessions collected in different areas of Albania, in order to evidentate some of their most interesting morpho physiological parameters. The ear weight, seed number, seed weight per ear and 1000 seeds weight for each Aegilops accession included in the experiment, have been evaluated. Beside these, the seeds imbibition potential and seedlings weight, height, leaf area have been evaluated, too. From the results of the numerous data processing, it is concluded that among the Aegilops accessions, included in the study, exist significant differences related their seeds and seedlings biometric parameters. For the most part of the evaluated parameters, the conical ear Aegilops accessions show advantages toward the cylindrical ones. Correlative analysis resulted in significant differences in the coefficients of correlation between seeds and seedlings parameters produced by Aegilops with distinct forms of the ear, respectively conical and cylindrical ones.

KeywordsAegilops, conical/ cylindrical ear, correlations, imbibition.

MULLAJ A. , HODA P., SHUKA L. , MIHO A., BEGO F. , QIRJO M.

1. Research Center of Flora and Fauna, FNS, UT; 2. Department of Biology, FNS, University of Tirana.

*alfred.mullaj@fshn.edu.al; aleko.miho@fshn.edu.al

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Abstract

Forestry, landscape and urban ecology, proper land use, green architecture, green management practices, etc. are fundamental topics nowadays both in education and in the practice of restoration. Albania is unique in the Western Balkan region with two major Moratoria in vigor, one on Forests and the other on Hunting. Both are closely related for decreased animal populations are in part caused by the poor state of habitats (in forests and shrubs, meadows and pastures, in agriculture and urban areas). The change comes not only with strict measures against woodcutting, but also with a different vision of the whole society, experts and decision-makers about green restoration of natural and urban habitats, about forestry as art and science, about best management practices (green BMPs). Based on our experience, we are presenting here examples of green practices for Albania, aiming at the restoration of native vegetation (Mediterranean deciduous and ever green forests and shrubs, thermophilic broadleaved forests, Mediterranean mesophyllic mountainous forests and conifers, mountainous pastures, dry and semi-dry stony pastures, plane trees, Mediterranean fluvial-riparian forest belt, etc.). Green practices are briefly identified in various habitats (forest and bushy areas of hilly zones, rocky slopes along roads, wind green belts, gardens and urban parks). Hence, native plant species, endemic, rare and with ornamental values will be mentioned, concluding with considerations for the greening of Tirana city. We strongly recommend the advanced breeding technologies to be used as the proper tool to produce healthy seedlings of autochthon trees and other plants with special characteristics adapted to local ecological conditions of the country. In addition, our society and the environment can benefit from plant biotechnology, meeting the demand for restoration of forests and shrubs, combat erosion, healthy and productive medicinal and aromatic plants, ornamental plants, meadows and garden products, protect the native plant and animal species from invasive pests, etc.

Keywords: Green Albania, moratoria (hunting & forests), green practices, landscape ecology, urban ecology

ALUSH MUSAJ, DAFINA LLUGAXHIU, RIFAT MORINA1*

1Faculty of Food Technology, University of Mitrovica “Isa Boletini” – Republic of Kosovo

2PhD candidate at Yeditepe University – Istanbul, Turkey

*Corresponding author E-mail: rifat.morina@umib.net

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Abstract

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is an internationally recognized system for identifying and controlling hazards in the food chain. One of seven principles of HACCP is Establish Verification Procedures. Verification means that the HACCP plan must be validated. Once the plan is in place, make sure it is effective in preventing the hazards identified. Test the end product; verify that the controls are working as planned, perform ongoing verification of the system if measuring and monitoring equipment is in control; what are corrective actions showing and if records are being maintained as required. The aim of this paper is verification of all parameters (chemical and physical parameters) for acceptance of fresh milk for the production of yogurt in Dairy “Bylmeti” and verification the values of milk pasteurization for yogurt. The acidity of milk is measured by Soxhlet-Henkel method. The fat was determined by the Gerber method and density was determined by the lacto-densimeter.  Other parameters were determined by the “Lactoscan” instrument. By the results that are done for five days we can see mostly those parameters are in accordance with Tetrapak standard where this paper is based.

LUMTA DIDA1, DHURATA SHEHU2, ARBEN MEHMETI1, THANAS RUCI2

1University of Prishtina, Faculty of Agriculture, Kosovo

2Plant protection department, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment Kodër- Kamëz, Tiranë

*Coresponding author email: lumtadida@hotmail.com

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Abstract

This study was conducted in several farms in Rahovec, Suhareka and Prizren municipalities where viniculture is developed. The following samples of varieties were selected in above mentioned regions: Afuzali, Demirkapi, Groqanka, Melnik, Pllovdin, Prokupe, Smedereve, Vranac and Zhillavk. In Rahovec region a total of 155 samples were selected, followed by the Suhareka region with 90 samples and Prizren region with a total of 5 samples. In August (2014) the labelling of samples and observation of symptoms were conducted and in January (2015) sample collection was carried out, whereas in April (2015) all samples were tested with ELISA method. All samples (300) were tested for seven viruses: Nepoviruses: (GFLV, ArMV), Closterovirus: (GLRaV-2), Ampeloviruses: (GLRaV-1, GLRaV-3), Vitivirus: (GVB) and Vitivirus: (GVA). According to the results of the ELISA test, GLRaV-3 is the most common virus with (13.3%). The second most common virus is GLRaV-1 with (8%), followed by GVA (7.3%). Regarding GFLV (2.3%) and ArMV (1%), these viruses were detected with very low incidence. None of the tested samples gave any positive reaction to GLRaV -2 and GVB. In respect of the virus distribution based on regionalization, out of 125 samples selected in Rahovec 44% came up with a positive result and out of 95 samples in Suhareka 38 were infected, whereas in Prizren only 1% samples out of 40 samples were infected.

Key words: Test ELISA, Nepoviruse, Closterovirus, Ampeloviruses, Vitivirus.

Xhiliola Bixheku1, Anila Hoda2*, Dhurata Bozo1

1Public Acredition Agency for Higher Education

2Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

Coresponding author email: ahoda@ubt.edu.al

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Abstract

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L) is among the most important freshwater fish species which are distributed all over the world. We present preliminary data on genotyping individuals by microsatellite marker. Allelic frequencies of one microsatellite loci was estimated on 60 individuals sampled randomly on Tapiza and Belsh fish farming centers. Fragemts were aplified by Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR), and afterwards were separated on a 6% PAA denaturing gel. A total of 23 alleles were detected. Mean observed heterozygosity was 0.334 and expected heterozygosity was 0.816.

Keywords: Observed and expected heterozygosity, marker

ANILA HODA, HYSEN BYTYQI

Abstract; Full text (PDF); pp. 13 – 17. Publ. Date: 20 May2017
Department of Animal Production, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania; 2 Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, University of Prishtina, Kosovo

*E-mail: ahoda@ubt.edu.al

 

Abstract

 

In this paper, the polymorphisms from 6 microsatellites were used to assess genetic diversity and relationships in 5 sheep breeds from Albania and Kosovo. A total of 150 unrelated healthy individuals were selected, from different flocks. Allele diversity, observed heterozygosities, expected heterozygosities, F-statistics, G estimates, number of migrants per generation (Nm), and Nei’s DA distance were calculated. The sheep breeds display a high level of genetic variation as estimated by allelic diversity and heterozygosity. The overall observed and expected heterosygosity were 0.738 and 0.867, respectively. Inbreeding for all population is FIS = 0.035. The mean genetic differentiation, FST was 0.138. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that 13.89% of variance can be explained by differences among populations. Factorial Correspondent Analysis distinguishes 2 groups. These data were consistent with those obtained from mtDNA. Microsatellite polymorphism data were shown to be useful for estimating the genetic relationships between local sheep breeds from Albania and Kosovo.

 

Key words: Genetic distance, genetic diversity, local breeds, microsatellite, mtDNA sheep

Post Author: MVhDC39RHa