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ALIU D. AFEKHAI, CHIBUZO N. C. NWAOGUALA AND JOSEPH E. ALIKA

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Abstract

The study was conducted to estimate general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) of 13 maize cultivars on grain yield and component traits using North Carolina mating design II (NCII). Genotype x environment interaction for the agronomic traits was also estimated. Crossing was carried out among thirteen elite maize cultivars which were planted in November 2014 under irrigation. The progenies were evaluated in April, 2015 during the early season and in August 2015, for the late season. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and thereafter, GCA and SCA were estimated. The results showed that there was little variation among parental genotypes in the early season while in late season, the parents exhibited wider variations in yield component traits evaluated. GCA/SCA ratio showed preponderance of specific combining ability (SCA) effects for all the yield component traits studied in the early and late cropping seasons except for number of grain rows/ear and number of grains/row. This implies that SCA was more important in these maize cultivars as parents to hybrid or synthetic variety populations. Highly significant differences were observed for genotypes x season interaction in almost all the characters, indicating that selection should be carried out on seasonal basis. Five top performing hybrid genotypes were identified and selected based on grain yield from each of the seasons: (11A11990)*(11A11917); (11A11990)*(07A04207); (11A11990)*(11A11991); (11A11936)*(11011896) and (09A2567)*(11A11895) for the early season and (11A11990)*(11A11991); (11A11936)*(11A11991); (12C24114)*(11011896); (11A11990)*(11011896) and (11A11936)*(12C24117) for the late season. These genotypes are therefore recommended for use in population improvement programme.

Keywords: General combining ability, specific combining ability, genotypes,  North Carolina Design II.

THOMA NASTO, TOKLI THOMAJ

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Agriculture University of Tirana

Abstract

The effect of bulb size on storage behavior of onions was investigated in an experiment carried out in Korça region. This study was focused on evaluation of certain bulb characteristics during storage under natural ventilation conditions. The autochthonous cultivar of Miras was involved in the study and three bulb sizes were observed: small, medium and large, with diameters ≤ 3cm, 3-5cm and ≥5cm respectively. The sealed and dries bulbs were placed for storage in the building with natural ventilation.  During the storage period, the weight loss, the damaged bulbs and the percentage of sprouted bulbs were estimated. The first two indicators were evaluated for the periods 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of the storage, while the last indicator after 60, 90 and 120 days.The results showed that during storage period, humidity gradually decreases. There were differences of bulb moisture content at different time periods after harvesting depending on their size and storage periods. After 120 days of storage, weight loss of large bulbs was about 23.827%, about 23.604% and 20.263% for small and medium bulbs size respectively. Results indicated that these losses are slightly affected by the size of the bulbs, while the storage period had the greatest impact, whereby the losses increase with the extension of the storage period.The findings raise the need of storage conditions improvement to reduce onions post harvest losses

Keywords: Onions, storage, bulb size, postharvest losses.

NDUBUEZE-OGARAKU, MERCY EBERE  ANDAMADI, EUNICE MUNACHIMSO

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, Rivers State, Nigeria

Abstract

The study examined the determinants of agricultural loan accessed by cooperative farmers from Bank of Agriculture in Imo State. Specifically, the socio-economic characteristics of the cooperative farmers were identified, volume of loan accessed by cooperative farmers was determined, effects of the socio-economic characteristics of the cooperative farmers on the volume of loan accessed was estimated. 80 respondents were selected randomly from five Local Government Areas of Imo State and data were collected using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were the analytical used. The result indicated that majority, (66.6%) of the cooperative farmers were males and were in the age bracket of 51 years and above. 57.5% of them were married and had household size of between 1-5 persons; the highest farming experience of the cooperative farmers was 10 years. The regression result showed that two regression coefficients (annual income farm and payback period) were positive and significant on the volume of loan accessed by the farmers while farming experience and interest rate negatively influenced the amount of loan accessed and were significant at 5% level. High interest rate, delay in fund release and poor attitude of bank staff were the major constraints faced by the farmers. Therefore, it is recommended that loan for cooperative farmers should be disbursed timely for effective use.

Keywords: Determinants, Volume, Loan, Cooperative farmers, Bank of Agriculture.

MERITA GECAJ

PhDstudent, Faculty of Economy and Agrobusiness, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

Abstract

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAP) sector is one of the most important agri-food subsectors in terms of income for rural households in mountainous areas and one of the subsectors where Albania has been traditionally competitive in world markets. Thereby, this sector has received growing attention from the government and donor community. This paper aims at analyzing the MAPs sector, with special focus on governmental support policies. The study describes support policies related to MAPs, based on secondary information including data retrieved from the database of the Agricultural and Rural Development Agency. In addition, the paper provides insight from farmers prospective regarding support policies based on a structured farm survey which was subject to descriptive statistical analysis.

Keywords: Aromatic plants, subsidies, policies, rural economy, market.

EMILIA ÇAÇI

Departament of  Physics, University “Ismail Qemali” Vlora, Albania

Download PDF fulltext 

Abstract

Light is one of the basic ecological physics factors, determining not only  the possibility for plants existence but also the physiological state of their photosynthetic apparatus. Applying simultaneous measurements of the kinetics of prompt fluorescence, delayed fluorescence and modulated 820 nm reflection we investigated the response of the photosynthetic apparatus when changing the light intensities (300 – 4000 μmol photons  m-2 s-1)  on olive plant leaves. We describe the  experimental approaches to studying the state of the photosynthetic apparatus and ways to study important structural and functional parameters, such as the quantum efficiency of the electronic flow in the Photo System II, the Photo System I and the electron transport chain between the two photo-systems; the concentration of the active reaction centers of  Photo System II; the electronic capacity of the electronic transport chain; as well the  total parameter that characterizes the  productivity in  photosynthetic apparatus initial reactions.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence,  prompt fluorescence , delayed fluorescence,  JIP test,  light intensity.

HALIMATUL SA’ADIAH ABDULLAH, KHAIRUN NAIM MULANA, MARDHATI HAZIRAH HASSAN

PhD candidate /Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Malaysia

MSc. candidate / International Environmental and Agriculture Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, 183-0054, Tokyo, Japan

MSc. candidate /Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Malaysia

Download PDF fulltext 

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of POME application on reducing ammonia volatilization loss using formulated control release urea (CRU) fertilizers. Ammonia volatilization loss was measured using modified force-draft technique to evaluate its effect via application of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Three type of BRIS soils; Melawi, Rudua, and Rhu Tapai were used under controlled laboratory condition with soil moisture maintained at 40 %. Application of typical urea and three (3) types of formulated control release urea fertilizers; Meister-20, CR Duration type V, and CDU Uber-10 at the rate of 400 µg/g were used en masse. Whilst, the application of POME was set at 100 kg/ha of dried POME. Ammonia volatilization loss was recorded on daily basis for a period of two weeks. Results indicated that, the combination of POME and urea shows the best reduction of NH3 at 83.6 % compared to without POME inclusions. The CRU fertilizers and incorporation of soil with POME in general shows best effect in reducing NH3 loss.

Keywords: Ammonia volatilization loss, BRIS soils, Controlled release urea, Palm oil mill effluent (POME), Modified force-draft technique.

FABJAN LASHI, ILIR KAPAJ

Faculty of Engineering, Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania.

Faculty of Economics and Agribusiness, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

Download PDF fulltext 

Abstract

Information is a key element for customer’s perception now days. There are many channels from where consumers get information from internet, TV, other consumers experience, but no certified method to be informed i.e. trusted label of meat and meat stuff. Education level, gender and age of the consumers interviewed in Tirana and the surrounding areas are analyzed through a tow step cluster and cross tab statistics to see how the five clustered groups of the above mentioned variables, influence the interest to get information before and during the purchase of meat in Albanian market. The meat origin form specific regions of Albania, the farm name (brand if any) or the farmer name, the meat fat ratio and the search attribute if consumers see the veterinarian stamp in the carcass in shops, outlets or other places where meat is traded/exposed. The results show that females in mid age, on their 50s, tend to pay more attention to attributes related with credence, based on their previews experience, their information they collect asking friends, or directly the butcher, when purchasing meat and meat stuff. Higher is the sensitivity for checking fat in meat when man in mid age, on their 50s, are the decision maker and purchase the meat seems to be the most concerned. It’s hard to define a clear distinction for the farm of production or farmer name, because this info is hard to be traced and reliable. When it comes to female consumer they pay more attention, despite the word of butcher that have a measured impact also in other studies [1]. Food safety remain a persistent problem for Albanian consumers. The need for intervention in the sector is on time and will open the sector to new and interesting international markets [2]. TLIS are an effective tool that improve the food safety in general and the meat value chain from the farm to the fork, as is in the objectives of EU.

Keywords: Food safety; customer perception; traceability systems, standards.

FAWOLE, OLUYEMISI BOLAJOKO AND YAHAYA, JAMES UKWUMONU

Department of Agronomy, University of Ilorin, P.M.B 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Abstract

In a laboratory experiment, herbicidal potentials of fungal strains in agricultural soils were investigated. This was with the view of using them to compliment synthetic herbicides which have been associated with adverse effects on the soil ecosystem and thus reduce environmental pollutions while controlling weeds. Soils were collected from four selected farm sites within the Southern Guinea Savanna (SGS) agro ecological zone of Nigeria.  Fungi were isolated using the soil dilution method and were identified using their colony and microscopic morphological characteristics. They were screened for their herbicidal properties on the foliages of Amaranthus hybridus using leaf necrosis assay. The percentage frequencies of occurrence of twenty-one fungal isolates were determined. The predominant fungal strains were Aspergillus sydowii (43.47%) and Alternaria alternata (30.43%), Aspergillus tereus (53.85%) and Aspergillus ustus (23.08%), Aspergillus niger (44.44%), Aspergillus tereus (33.33%), Penicillium marneffei (58.06%) and Fusarium vertilliodes (25.81%) in soils from  Kogi,  Kwara, Niger and Benue farm sites respectively. A very high percentage (80-85%) of all the fungal isolates from the soils showed herbicidal properties. The isolated fungal strains had varying degrees of herbicidal properties. Two fungal strains, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium citrinum had the highest strengths as biocontrol agents as indicated by the large necrotic lesions produced on the foliages of Amaranthus hybridus It was concluded that these two have the potentials for use as bioherbicides. Further investigations were recommended to study the secondary metabolites produced by these fungi and their effects on selected weeds.

Keywords: Bio-herbicide, Soil Fungi, Leaf necrosis assay.

ALIU D. AFEKHAI, CHIBUZO N. C. NWAOGUALA AND JOSEPH E. ALIKA

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Abstract

The study was conducted to estimate general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) of 13 maize cultivars on grain yield and component traits using North Carolina mating design II (NCII). Genotype x environment interaction for the agronomic traits was also estimated. Crossing was carried out among thirteen elite maize cultivars which were planted in November 2014 under irrigation. The progenies were evaluated in April, 2015 during the early season and in August 2015, for the late season. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and thereafter, GCA and SCA were estimated. The results showed that there was little variation among parental genotypes in the early season while in late season, the parents exhibited wider variations in yield component traits evaluated. GCA/SCA ratio showed preponderance of specific combining ability (SCA) effects for all the yield component traits studied in the early and late cropping seasons except for number of grain rows/ear and number of grains/row. This implies that SCA was more important in these maize cultivars as parents to hybrid or synthetic variety populations. Highly significant differences were observed for genotypes x season interaction in almost all the characters, indicating that selection should be carried out on seasonal basis. Five top performing hybrid genotypes were identified and selected based on grain yield from each of the seasons: (11A11990)*(11A11917); (11A11990)*(07A04207); (11A11990)*(11A11991); (11A11936)*(11011896) and (09A2567)*(11A11895) for the early season and (11A11990)*(11A11991); (11A11936)*(11A11991); (12C24114)*(11011896); (11A11990)*(11011896) and (11A11936)*(12C24117) for the late season. These genotypes are therefore recommended for use in population improvement programme.

Keywords: General combining ability, specific combining ability, genotypes,  North Carolina Design II.

THOMA NASTO, TOKLI THOMAJ

1Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Agriculture University of Tirana

Abstract

< p align="justify">The effect of bulb size on storage behavior of onions was investigated in an experiment carried out in Korça region. This study was focused on evaluation of certain bulb characteristics during storage under natural ventilation conditions. The autochthonous cultivar of Miras was involved in the study and three bulb sizes were observed: small, medium and large, with diameters ≤ 3cm, 3-5cm and ≥5cm respectively. The sealed and dries bulbs were placed for storage in the building with natural ventilation.  During the storage period, the weight loss, the damaged bulbs and the percentage of sprouted bulbs were estimated. The first two indicators were evaluated for the periods 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of the storage, while the last indicator after 60, 90 and 120 days.The results showed that during storage period, humidity gradually decreases. There were differences of bulb moisture content at different time periods after harvesting depending on their size and storage periods. After 120 days of storage, weight loss of large bulbs was about 23.827%, about 23.604% and 20.263% for small and medium bulbs size respectively. Results indicated that these losses are slightly affected by the size of the bulbs, while the storage period had the greatest impact, whereby the losses increase with the extension of the storage period.The findings raise the need of storage conditions improvement to reduce onions post harvest losses

Keywords: Onions, storage, bulb size, postharvest losses.

NDUBUEZE-OGARAKU, MERCY EBERE ANDAMADI, EUNICE MUNACHIMSO

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, Rivers State, Nigeria

Abstract

The study examined the determinants of agricultural loan accessed by cooperative farmers from Bank of Agriculture in Imo State. Specifically, the socio-economic characteristics of the cooperative farmers were identified, volume of loan accessed by cooperative farmers was determined, effects of the socio-economic characteristics of the cooperative farmers on the volume of loan accessed was estimated. 80 respondents were selected randomly from five Local Government Areas of Imo State and data were collected using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were the analytical used. The result indicated that majority, (66.6%) of the cooperative farmers were males and were in the age bracket of 51 years and above. 57.5% of them were married and had household size of between 1-5 persons; the highest farming experience of the cooperative farmers was 10 years. The regression result showed that two regression coefficients (annual income farm and payback period) were positive and significant on the volume of loan accessed by the farmers while farming experience and interest rate negatively influenced the amount of loan accessed and were significant at 5% level. High interest rate, delay in fund release and poor attitude of bank staff were the major constraints faced by the farmers. Therefore, it is recommended that loan for cooperative farmers should be disbursed timely for effective use.

Keywords: Determinants, Volume, Loan, Cooperative farmers, Bank of Agriculture.

MERITA GECAJ

PhDstudent, Faculty of Economy and Agrobusiness, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

Abstract

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAP) sector is one of the most important agri-food subsectors in terms of income for rural households in mountainous areas and one of the subsectors where Albania has been traditionally competitive in world markets. Thereby, this sector has received growing attention from the government and donor community. This paper aims at analyzing the MAPs sector, with special focus on governmental support policies. The study describes support policies related to MAPs, based on secondary information including data retrieved from the database of the Agricultural and Rural Development Agency. In addition, the paper provides insight from farmers prospective regarding support policies based on a structured farm survey which was subject to descriptive statistical analysis.

Keywords: Aromatic plants, subsidies, policies, rural economy, market.

EMILIA ÇAÇI

Departament of  Physics, University “Ismail Qemali” Vlora, Albania

Download PDF fulltext 

Abstract

Light is one of the basic ecological physics factors, determining not only  the possibility for plants existence but also the physiological state of their photosynthetic apparatus. Applying simultaneous measurements of the kinetics of prompt fluorescence, delayed fluorescence and modulated 820 nm reflection we investigated the response of the photosynthetic apparatus when changing the light intensities (300 – 4000 μmol photons  m-2 s-1)  on olive plant leaves. We describe the  experimental approaches to studying the state of the photosynthetic apparatus and ways to study important structural and functional parameters, such as the quantum efficiency of the electronic flow in the Photo System II, the Photo System I and the electron transport chain between the two photo-systems; the concentration of the active reaction centers of  Photo System II; the electronic capacity of the electronic transport chain; as well the  total parameter that characterizes the  productivity in  photosynthetic apparatus initial reactions.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence,  prompt fluorescence , delayed fluorescence,  JIP test,  light intensity.

HALIMATUL SA’ADIAH ABDULLAH, KHAIRUN NAIM MULANA, MARDHATI HAZIRAH HASSAN

PhD candidate /Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Malaysia

MSc. candidate / International Environmental and Agriculture Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, 183-0054, Tokyo, Japan

MSc. candidate /Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Malaysia

Download PDF fulltext

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of POME application on reducing ammonia volatilization loss using formulated control release urea (CRU) fertilizers. Ammonia volatilization loss was measured using modified force-draft technique to evaluate its effect via application of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Three type of BRIS soils; Melawi, Rudua, and Rhu Tapai were used under controlled laboratory condition with soil moisture maintained at 40 %. Application of typical urea and three (3) types of formulated control release urea fertilizers; Meister-20, CR Duration type V, and CDU Uber-10 at the rate of 400 µg/g were used en masse. Whilst, the application of POME was set at 100 kg/ha of dried POME. Ammonia volatilization loss was recorded on daily basis for a period of two weeks. Results indicated that, the combination of POME and urea shows the best reduction of NH3 at 83.6 % compared to without POME inclusions. The CRU fertilizers and incorporation of soil with POME in general shows best effect in reducing NH3 loss.

Keywords: Ammonia volatilization loss, BRIS soils, Controlled release urea, Palm oil mill effluent (POME), Modified force-draft technique.

FABJAN LASHI, ILIR KAPAJ

Faculty of Engineering, Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania.

Faculty of Economics and Agribusiness, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

Download PDF fulltext

Abstract

Information is a key element for customer’s perception now days. There are many channels from where consumers get information from internet, TV, other consumers experience, but no certified method to be informed i.e. trusted label of meat and meat stuff. Education level, gender and age of the consumers interviewed in Tirana and the surrounding areas are analyzed through a tow step cluster and cross tab statistics to see how the five clustered groups of the above mentioned variables, influence the interest to get information before and during the purchase of meat in Albanian market. The meat origin form specific regions of Albania, the farm name (brand if any) or the farmer name, the meat fat ratio and the search attribute if consumers see the veterinarian stamp in the carcass in shops, outlets or other places where meat is traded/exposed. The results show that females in mid age, on their 50s, tend to pay more attention to attributes related with credence, based on their previews experience, their information they collect asking friends, or directly the butcher, when purchasing meat and meat stuff. Higher is the sensitivity for checking fat in meat when man in mid age, on their 50s, are the decision maker and purchase the meat seems to be the most concerned. It’s hard to define a clear distinction for the farm of production or farmer name, because this info is hard to be traced and reliable. When it comes to female consumer they pay more attention, despite the word of butcher that have a measured impact also in other studies [1]. Food safety remain a persistent problem for Albanian consumers. The need for intervention in the sector is on time and will open the sector to new and interesting international markets [2]. TLIS are an effective tool that improve the food safety in general and the meat value chain from the farm to the fork, as is in the objectives of EU.

Keywords: Food safety; customer perception; traceability systems, standards.

FAWOLE, OLUYEMISI BOLAJOKO AND YAHAYA, JAMES UKWUMONU

Department of Agronomy, University of Ilorin, P.M.B 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Download PDF fulltext

Abstract

In a laboratory experiment, herbicidal potentials of fungal strains in agricultural soils were investigated. This was with the view of using them to compliment synthetic herbicides which have been associated with adverse effects on the soil ecosystem and thus reduce environmental pollutions while controlling weeds. Soils were collected from four selected farm sites within the Southern Guinea Savanna (SGS) agro ecological zone of Nigeria.  Fungi were isolated using the soil dilution method and were identified using their colony and microscopic morphological characteristics. They were screened for their herbicidal properties on the foliages of Amaranthus hybridus using leaf necrosis assay. The percentage frequencies of occurrence of twenty-one fungal isolates were determined. The predominant fungal strains were Aspergillus sydowii (43.47%) and Alternaria alternata (30.43%), Aspergillus tereus (53.85%) and Aspergillus ustus (23.08%), Aspergillus niger (44.44%), Aspergillus tereus (33.33%), Penicillium marneffei (58.06%) and Fusarium vertilliodes (25.81%) in soils from  Kogi,  Kwara, Niger and Benue farm sites respectively. A very high percentage (80-85%) of all the fungal isolates from the soils showed herbicidal properties. The isolated fungal strains had varying degrees of herbicidal properties. Two fungal strains, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium citrinum had the highest strengths as biocontrol agents as indicated by the large necrotic lesions produced on the foliages of Amaranthus hybridus It was concluded that these two have the potentials for use as bioherbicides. Further investigations were recommended to study the secondary metabolites produced by these fungi and their effects on selected weeds.

Keywords: Bio-herbicide, Soil Fungi, Leaf necrosis assay.

Rasoul Fakhari, Ahmad Tobeh, Mohamad Taghi Alebrahim, Ruhangiz Mammadova, Rauf Kuliyev, Firuza Yunusova

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Abstract Full text (PDF); pp. 133-142. Publ. Date: 30 September 2017

1Ph.D Student, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

2Department of Agronomy and Plant breeding, University of Mohaghegh Ardabil, Ardabil, Iran

3Genetic Resources Institute of Azerbaijan, National Academy of Sciences, Azerbaijan

4Genetics and Evolution Theory Faculty, Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan

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Abstract

Constraints to effective weed management may be the main reason for the small area under minimum tillage (MT) in smallholder farming in Iran. The effect of tillage systems and intensity of hand hoe weeding on the growth of weeds and maize (SKC 108) was investigated in the 2013–2014 growing season a field experiment at Tehran Research Station (28830.920E, 20823.320S). The experiment was a split-plot randomized complete block design with four replications. Tillage was the main plot factor (conventional tillage – mouldboard tillage (MBT) compared against minimum tillage (MT) – disc) and hoe weeding rate the sub-plot factor. Hoe weeding was done either two times (high weeding intensity), one (low weeding intensity) and no weeding during the cropping season. There was markedly greater early season weed growth in minimum tillage (MT) relative to mouldboard tillage (MBT) in crop season. MT tillage system had higher weed biomass (285.26 g/m2) measured than MBT (278.63 g/m2) system. The high weeding intensity treatment had lower weed growth and better maize yield than high weeding intensity. MBT had the higher maize ear length, 1000 grain weight, maize total dry weight, harvest index, total maize N uptake, grain N uptake and grain N concentration which translated significantly higher than in MT system. Maize grain yield obtained from MT system was less than (4.250 t/ha1) compared to (4.931 t/ha1) in MBT. Results suggest that MT systems require early and frequent hoe weeding even many years to reduce weed infestations and improve crop growth. This higher demand on a smallholder household’s limited labor supply throughout the cropping season will be a key determinant of the spread and adoption of MT systems in Iran.

Keywords: Minimum tillage, mouldboard tillage, ear length, total N uptake, grain N concentration.

EUGEN SKURA, ILIR KRISTO

Abstract Full text (PDF); pp. 127-132. Publ. Date: 30 September 2017

1Department of Agroenvironment and EcologyAgricultural UniversityofTirana, Tirana, Albania

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Abstract

Area of the Republic of Albania is characterized with high soil erosion rate. Each year nearly 60 million tons of sediments are deposited by Albanian rivers into the Adriatic Sea. Soil erosion and other associated pollution, are critical problems affecting the economic welfare, food security, and public health of Albania.  In last decades, faster economic growth of the country and lack of soil resources, fresh water, forests etc., reinforce the need for soil protection and soil conservation. That increases the interest for erosion research, especially in the areas highly affected by soil erosion.

The objectives of this paper are to quantify the magnitude of soil erosion affected by climatic conditions to identify high-risk areas for immediate soil erosion control.

Keywords:Soil erosion, land use, rainfall factor.

DIVIE OLAGHERE, OLUBUNMI OMOTESHO, AZEEZ MUHAMMAD-LAWAL

Full text (PDF); pp. 121-126. Publ. Date: 30 September 2017

Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

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Abstract

The gains that farmers stand to make, and the cost associated with the usage, is usually a motivating factor in deciding whether or not to adopt a new technology. Specifically, this study examined the effect of liquid fertilizer usage on the profitability of dry season vegetable production, and compared the profitability of the patterns of usage.  A Multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to select 309 dry season vegetable farmers from two states in the Southern Guinea Savannah Zone. Data was collected using an interview schedule. Partial budgeting technique, analysis of variance, and the t-test were the analytical tools employed in the study. The t-test results showed that usage of liquid fertilizer was more profitable than the non-usage. Gross margin analysis showed that usage of sole liquid fertilizer had the highest Return to Capital Invested (RCI) of 2.52. Analysis of variance test showed there was a significant difference between the means of the RCI for the three fertilizer usage categories. The study concluded that the sole usage of liquid fertilizer was the most profitable of the different usage patterns examined. The study therefore recommended that usage of liquid fertilizer should be encouraged among the dry season vegetable farmers. This can be achieved by the inclusion of liquid fertilizer in agricultural support programmes that are designed to ensure availability and affordability of fertilizers.

Keywords: Improved Fertilizer, Irrigation, Small scale farming, Profitability.

SEBASTIAN PODSĘDEK, PRZEMYSŁAW WINIARSKI, JAROSŁAW KĄCKI

Abstract  Full text (PDF); pp. 114-120. Publ. Date: 30 September 2017

Sebastian Podsędek1, Przemysław Winiarski2*, Jarosław Kącki2

1Eng. Student, Technical University of Opole, Polska

2PhD Student, Technical University of Opole, Polska

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Abstract

The article describes static analysis of threshing machine casing, which is at the same time a supporting structure of a combine harvester manufactured by New Holland Bizon Ltd. The model of the examined machine with Z110 thresher rotor was being produced until 2004, and further modifications of the threshing system are being made to date [1].  To conduct the study, the authors used programs: Inventor 2017 to create a digital model, and Nastran In-CAD 2017 to perform simulation calculations. The purpose of this article was to scrutinize and assay the construction of supporting structure with its damages arising from defects of design, as well as to conduct a static analysis of the object of study with the employment of finite elements method (FEM), using CAD/CAE software and ideas for solving constructional problems by reducing stresses, which may cause failures and, in consequence, unplanned downtime during harvesting. Ultimately, static analysis of proposed solutions was conducted.

Keywordscombine harvester, statistic finite elements analysis, internal stresses.

 

Abstract Full text (PDF); pp. 108-113. Publ. Date: 30 September 2017

Abstract

Durum wheat production in our environmental conditions is realized by the diffusion of cultivars with high adaptability to environmental stresses. Some of the traditional cultivars posses this characteristics, but they have low productivity, even in favorable conditions. On the other hand, the durum wheat cultivars, created these last years, have high productivity compared with the traditional ones. But sowing these new cultivars in traditional environments, is associated with some problems, because they are considered as cultivars with high demands in relation to growing conditions. These new cultivars, anyhow, have a physiological construction suitable to response better in different environments.

The aim of this study was to determine eventual changes in dry matter accumulation and size of leaf area, and to determine the influence  of NAR, LAD, G/LAD, HI values on grain production of four durum wheat genotypes. According to the achieved results, it was evident that the above mentioned physiological traits, have influence on plant productivity.  The values of LAI, LAD and G/LAD after heading had higher effect on productivity. Some of the studied  genotypes (Valforte, 5/11-1) realize their productivity due to high values of LAD, while some others ( Creso, N-24) due to better values of G/LAD. Finally, cultivars (or genotypes) like 5/-11-1, with high values of LAD after heading are suitable for optimal environments, while cultivars with short vegetative period, small values of LAD, LAI, and with high values of G/LAD like N-24 are suitable for limited environments

 

Keywords: cultivar, dry matter, environment, genotype, harvest index, physiological traits.

 

 

KATEKHAYE, ROBERT MAGDA

Abstract  Full text (PDF); pp. 101-107. Publ. Date: 30 September 2017

DHANASHREE KATEKHAYE, ROBERT MAGDA

1PhD student, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, SzentIstvánUniversity ,Godollo Hungary

2Associate Professor, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, SzentIstván University, Godollo Hungary

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Abstract

The main purpose of this study to analyse relationship between rural entrepreneurship, development, and poverty alleviation. In rural areas, despite trending policies and law many people continue to live below the poverty line. A key solution to this situation is establishment of entrepreneurship in rural areas. These entrepreneurial programs provide income opportunities to the people in rural area, giving them a chance to prove their talent, indigenous activities as well prevent rural to urban migration in search of better chances of livelihood. Increase in rural entrepreneurship goes hand in hand with depreciation in poverty.

According to researchers point of view increased awareness in developing and encouraging rural entrepreneurship may reduce poverty from rural India as well as bolster the growth of rural areas, increase their standard of living as well implement more creative and innovative thinking thus laying the frontiers of education in the minds of rural people. In the present study, it has been indicated negative relationship between rural entrepreneurship development and poverty alleviation.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, poverty alleviation, rural India.