Lipophilic Toxins in Butrinti Lagoon Mussels and their Relation with Potentially Toxic Dinoflagellates

MARSELA BREGAJ1*, MYNYR KONI2, EDMOND PANARITI3, MERJEM BUSHATI1, ERLINDA KONI1

1Department of Food Safety, Food Safety and Veterinary Institute, Rruga “ Aleksander Moisiu”, N.10, Tirana, Albania

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Albania

3Ministry of Agriculture, Tirana, Albania

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Abstract

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal illness. It is caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. These toxins are produced by the planktonic algae (mainly dinoflagellates). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the presence of potential toxic phytoplankton species and marine biotoxins like DSP in Butrinti Lagoon and to analyze the relationship between toxin levels and abundance of possible causative phytoplankton species. Samples were collected in Butrinti Lagoon, known for the cultivation of the, Mytilus galloprovicialis and fishing. During January 2011 until December 2012 were analyzed 126 samples of M. galloprovincialis for the presence of lipophilic toxins and dinoflagellates potentially toxic. The toxins were extracted from shellfish tissue using acetone, followed by extraction with dichloromethane and methanol. The final residue is dissolve in 1% (v/v) Tween 60. 19.84% of samples analyzed shown positive results for the presence of toxins that cause DSP with higher concentration of limit sets in EC Regulation No. 853/2004. The presence of different dinoflagellates was observed in the samples during that period in level 120cell/L – 920 cell/L, like Gonyaulax spinifera, Dinophysis sacculus, Dinophysis acuminata, that are known to produce algal toxins, including DSP.

Keywords: Butrinti Lagoon, DSP, Mytilus galloprovincialis, dinoflagellates

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