Occurrence of Rugose Wood and Leafroll Virus Disease Complexes their Causative Agents and Vectors in Albanian Grapevine Varieties

DRITAN SADIKAJ*, EJUP ҪOTA, MAGDALENA CARA, JORDAN MËRKURI

Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

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Abstract

In Albania the virus diseases of Leafroll and Rugose Wood caused by Grapevine Leafroll-associated Virus complex (GLRaV1-7) and the Grapevine viruses A-F (GVA, B, D, E, F), respectively, were reported to have the highest incidence among other virus diseases tested. The viruses pertaining to these complexes are transmitted by grafting, insect vectors or both. This research aimed at understanding their current status and potential by analyzing the incidence of the causative agents of leafroll and rugose wood diseases by ELISA and identifying their known Pseudococcidae vectors based on morphological keys. Results showed that leafroll disease complex is predominant with the causal agent GLRaV-3 being the most prevalent virus within the complex, followed by GLRaV-7, 1 and 2 in decreasing order. In the rugose wood disease complex, the causal agent GVA had the highest incidence, while GVB was found sporadically. Out of all viruses tested GVA had the highest incidence with 47.7% of positive samples. Within the known potential vectors of leafroll and rugose wood complex Planococcus ficus and Pseudococcus maritimus were identified. The results showed that both virus complexes are present together with some of their potential vectors which presume that epidemiological conditions are met to satisfy spread of these viral diseases in native Albanian grapevines varieties and nurseries.

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