1st International Conference “Biotechnology in Agriculture”

Plant & Environment

ALBAN JAUPI1, FATMIRA ALLMUÇA2, ERMELA BAJRAKTARI 1Department of Policy and Rural Development, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania 2Directorate of Programming and Evaluation of Rural Policies, Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Water Administration, Tirana, Albania *Corresponding author  e-mail: jaupi_a@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract: The turn of consumers towards quality, healthy and safe food products results in a new definition of quality that refers to: i). their geographical origin ii). their freshness and seasonality; iii) the environmentally friendly or healthy production techniques; iv). the producers themselves, since societal relationships play an important role between producer and consumer [2]. Thus, there exist certified agro-food products of a spatial character suchas the Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs) and the Protected Geographical Indications (PGIs) and certified agro-food products of an a-spatialcharacter such as the organic products [11].The main goal of our case study is the identification of Korça typical products, PDO and PGI potential products and their contribution to the sustainable rural development in order to designing the policy intervention framework in the future. This study is based on a structured survey with the: i.) farmers/producers (381 interviews), ii.) working personnel in various public agencies, iii.)  the businessmen and businesswomen. Moreover, a number of secondary data by public agencies of Korça region, farmers associations, etc.), but also by University papers and studies and scientific journals have been used. A series of elements regarding perceptions and attitudes among consumers was measured, using basic descriptive statistics analysis to describe the responses of the sample under study.According to this study, most consumers prefer their products based on origin that brings to a conclusion that PDOs or PGIs, or Traditional Specialty Guaranteed (TSGs) must be promoted through a Public Private partnership. Keywords: quality, food, PDO, PGI, Korça, partnership ...
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Alban Jaupi*, Shkelzen Marku. Ermela Bajraktari Department of Economic and Agrarian Policies, Faculty of Economy and Agribusiness, Agriculture University of Tirana, Albania *Corresponding author e-mail: jaupi_a@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract: Recent developments in food production and processing technologies have considerably enhanced man's ability to provide larger quantities and a wider variety of products. However, the recent development biotechnologies has also significantly increased controversy and dispute over the use of food and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of from conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production. The dispute involves consumers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, and scientists. The article reviews the regulatory measures and approaches taken by the government of Albania to assess and manage the risks associated with the development, release and use of genetically modified foods in the country. The review and analyzes is made in light of the processes for harmonization of Albanian’s food policies and its legal and regulatory framework with the EU legislation and Acquis Communautaires. It identifies several important legal and regulatory issues and proposes necessary measures and mechanisms to be put in place related to identification and protection of the public interest and increased ability of consumers to be informed about the foods they eat. Keywords: food biotechnology; food safety; regulation; policy; genetically modified organisms ...
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LIRIM BEKTESHI¹ PRANVERA LAZO² FLORA QARRI3 1Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Chemistry University of Elbasan,Albania 2Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Chemistry University of Tirana, Albania 3Department of Chemistry University of Vlora, Albania *Corresponding author e-mail:lirimbekteshi@ymail.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Environmental pollution is increasing day by day, posing a very serious problem for human health. A large number of pollutants, including heavy metals, are adversely affecting our environment. Heavy metals are emitted from solid fuel combustion, vehicular emission and in industrial processes. Mosses are widely used as bio-monitors. Since the mosses have not roots system, and their leaves have not protective layer, they absorb nutrients through their thin leaves, directly from the air. Accumulation of heavy metals in the leaves of the mosses, is attributed to the presence of negative charges that possess in leaves. The assessment of heavy metal pollution in the Elbasani area  was carried out in this study,  by using native mosses (passive method) and "moss bag" (active method of monitoring) bio-monitoring. Hypnum cupressiforme sp. was used in both monitoring methods. The "moss bags" were exposed for 6 months at various points in the area, while the native mosses were collected at two points in the study area. Heavy metals as Ni, Cr, Fe, Ca, Mg and Zn were analyzed in exposed and native mosses. Indigenous moss samples were analyzed with ICP / AES technique, while the exposed samples, "moss bags", were analyzed with FAAS technique (Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg) and with GFAAS technique (Cr, Ni). The data obtained was used for calculating the contamination factor (CF). The results of CF data show that the Elbasani area is polluted by heavy metals due to industrial activity. Keywords: bio-monitor, moss-bag, heavy metals, ICP/AES, FAAS, GFAAS ...
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KRENAR XHELO1, FETAH ELEZI2* 1Department for Plant Production, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania 2Centre for Genetic Resource, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania *Corresponding author e-mail:elezi_fetah@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract The aim of this research is the selection of most suitable wheat cultivars for the region of Lushnja. Ten new cultivars and six know cultivars (three local and three foreign) were planted in this area in 2012 and 2013. The experiments were implemented through the randomized block scheme, with three repeats. The climate conditions presented remarkable difference between the two years of the testing. The year 2012 conditions were suitable for wheat development. On the other hand, the year 2013 was characterized by unsuitable conditions. The main indicators studied were the morphologic ones, the phenologic phases and the biometric parameters such as: Plant height, Spike length, grain per spike, g1000 kernel weights. The average difference of production between the two years is 18%, while the difference of the biannual difference reached at 50%. The variance analysis was calculated for each year of production (tha, -1) and for each cultivar. From the analysis it was shown that nine cultivars are above the average production level. The most stable cultivars for the two years of study were G08, G07 and G02. The interaction between cultivars x years presents different levels for yield stability. The comparisons for all couples were implemented using the Tukey-Kramer HSD Method. The positive values show the couples that present verified differences. Keywords: Cultivar, randomized block scheme, variance analysis ...
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FETAH ELEZI1*, KRENAR XHELO2, VALBONA HOBDARI1 1*Center for Genetic Resource, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania 2Department for Plant Production, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania *Corresponding author e-mail:elezi_fetah@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext  Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the main morphologic and biometric parameters, and the production index, in 20 wheat accessions (Triticum aestivum L.), from the base collection of the Gene Bank in Albania. The studied morphological parameters were: plant height (PH), spikelet for spike (SS), grain weight per spike (GWS), spike weight (SW), 1000 grain weight, days to maturity (DM). Collected data indicated that genotypes present significant differences for PH; the number of SS, there is a high difference of GWS (g per spike). High differences were presented for days to maturity (DM). Also some genotypes have high protein content (12-15.2%) and the gluten content with an average 21.6-35.6 %. Results taken were analyzed for relations between characters in wheat genotypes. Hierarchical Cluster Method was used to observe relation and distance among genotypes. The collected data by this study will be as additional information for Gene Bank and to be used in the plant improvement programs.  Keywords: accessions, base collection, Cluster method ...
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ADELA KULLAJ*, MARGARITA HYSKO Department of Biology, Natural Sciences Faculty, Tirana University, Albania. *Corresponding author e-mail kullajadela@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Bovilla reservoir, which is situated 15 km North-East of Tirana the capital city of Albania is one of the major hidrotechnical works of this country. This reservoir is a warm monomictic water body and stratifies higher in the summer season. The predominant trophic state of Bovilla reservoir is oligotrophy. From autumn 2001 this reservoir repeatedly manifests an unpleasant taste and odor which is defined as musty- earthy. Taste and odor control has become an important issue for drinking water suppliers worldwide. Consumers react very sensitively to changes in the organoleptic quality of their drinking water. The reason is that odor compounds present a very low threshold of perception (10–20 ng/L). Bovilla water treatment plant treats 1800 L/s raw water taken from Bovilla reservoir, using oxidation, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection process. In cases of bad odor powdered activated carbon (PAC) is added at the rapid mix section. Throughout the monitoring period were done: quality and sensory analysis of raw water on a weekly frequency, analysis of treated water after coagulation, laboratory scale experiments using different doses of chemicals, applying optimized doses in full scale and PAC adsorption experiments. The aims of this study were: to predict the PAC doses required to treat water of Bovilla reservoir containing bad taste and odor, to establish the removal efficiency of taste and odor by three types of activated carbons with different iodine number and to assess the impact of NaOCl and other chemical in the treatment process of the plant in removing actinomycetes and bad odor. Results have shown that traditional treatment processes are usually inadequate in removing taste and odor and optimization of plant practices is required. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) can effectively remove taste and odor when the correct dose is applied. Key words: Bovilla reservoir, water treatment plant, actinomycetes, taste and odor, powdered activated carbon  ...
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MAJLINDA TERPO1*, MAJLINDA VASJARI2, ROMEO MANO1, MARSELA ÇOMO1, MARIE AGOLLI1 1 Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University “Eqrem Çabej”, Gjirokastra, Albania 2 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Albania. 3Department of Mathematics & Computer sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University “Eqrem Çabej”, Gjirokastra, Albania *Coresponding author e-mail: mterpo@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in south Albania. The most important environmental features of mosses as a suitable tool of biomonitoring are: rootless, large surface, wide - spread population, a habit to grow in groups, long life – cycle, survival in a high – polluted environment, an ability to obtain nutrients from wet and dry deposition. The moss Pseudoscleropodium purum was used as a bioindicator and biomonitor of metal pollution. In this work the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, Fe, Na, K and Zn) in moss samples collected from 9 sites of the southern part of Albania is presented. Moss samples were collected during the period September – October 2010 according to the guidelines of the UNECE ICP Vegetation. The concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples were determined using AAS technique equipped with flame and/or electro-thermal systems. AES method was used for Na and K determination. The variations of heavy metals concentrations with sampling sites are shown in heavy metal contamination diagrams. PCA and cluster analysis was used to identify the most polluted areas and characterize different pollution sources. Key words: biomonitoring, Pseudoscleropodium purum, trace metals, atmospheric deposition ...
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Agim Canko*, Foto Kashta Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment *Corresponding author e-mail : agimcanko@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Dry bean is considered a staple cop in comparison with other leguminous crops in Albania. Some 15-17 thousand hectares are cultivated with crop each year in Albania, ranking this country among the main growers in Europe with regard to land acreage per capita. Most of dry bean cultivars cultivated in Albania are landraces with long life cycle and stable yields. Nevertheless these cultivars revealed yield fluctuations due to stresses caused by environmental changes in the last twenty years. Overcoming yield shortages has been the focus of a breeding program aiming at breeding new half determinant cultivars adaptable to earlier sowing dates, and with improved yield components such as number of pods per plant, number of beans per pod. 1000 beans weight, etc. This objective was achieved through a classical breeding program in which five dry beans landraces and introduced cultivars were crossed with each other. Final data were used to calculate crossing ability among these populations, genetic heritability, and genotypic correlations of some quantitative traits. These results may serve to improve the bean yielding capacity via classical breeding methods. Key Words: Genotypic correlations, trait heritability, environmental stresses ...
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AGIM CANKO Agricultural University of Tirana, Agricultural and Environmental Faculty, Crop Production Department Corresponding author e-mail: agimcanko@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Restudying of some technological elements of dry bean is necessary because of climatic changes at last years. In this aspect, since the optimal density of bean plants depends principally by the soil, climatic conditions and genotype, studying the influence of plant density in two new varieties, created by artificial hybridization, has been motivated. There were three plants density levels 150, 250 and 350 thousand of plants/ha and two varieties, L3221 and L232. The experiment was conducted at the experimental fields of ATTC Fushë Krujë, during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. It must be accentuated that the climatic conditions, in two years of study, especially during the reproductive period, haven’t been convenient for dry bean production. The data obtained, indicated that increasing of plants density is followed by the reduction of the plant cycle in 2-3 days. Furthermore, increasing three times the number of plants leads to linear decrease of production elements values. On the other hand, the increase of plants density, from 150 to 350 thousand plants/ha, has increased significantly the yield about 5 quintal/ha. Among the varieties in the study, there are no significant differences on yield, because they belong to the same growing type, but they have different characteristics, that aren’t the target of this study. Keywords: dry bean, haevest index, biological production, competition ability ...
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FOTO KASHTA Agricultural University of Tirana, Agricultural and Environmental Faculty, Crop Production Department Corresponding author e-mail: foto_kashta@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different nitrogen levels on five bread wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design, having four replications, plot size of 10 m2. N doses used were 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha. The grain production of each variant was analyzed for the following traits: grain yield, thousand kernels weight, test weight, protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation (SDS), as indirect indices of the quality of bread. Results showed that increasing N fertilizer resulted in increased of all analyzed indices. Grain yield were statistically similar at doses of 150  and 200 kg N/ha. However, dose of 200 kg N/ha, significantly increased the protein, and wet gluten content. Likewise were studied and several other indices related directly with bread-making quality as alveograph indices (W and the ratio P / L). The data showed that these indices have been improved ​​by increasing the quantity of N used, which inevitably improve bread quality. Key words: Bread-making quality, grain yield, protein and wet gluten content, sedimentation, test and 1000 grains weight, W and the ratio P / L ...
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FOTO KASHTA, AGIM CANKO Agricultural University of Tirana, Agricultural and Environmental Faculty, Crop Production Department Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Five cultivars and ten their F1 and F2 hybrids were tested for inheritance of quantitative traits To achieve this aim, the difference between mean values of each F1 and F2 trait were used. These values represent the loss of allelic gene interaction during reproductive process. Using a method different from standard methods, we have determined the parental general combining ability (GCA) and influence of allelic and non allelic gene interaction, that arise during hybridization. The results revealed that these values are negative or positive, influencing negatively or positively on traits value of progeny. When the values of allelic and non-allelic interaction are equal, but inverse sign, have not heterotic effect. Analyzing the results can see also, that between allelic and non-allelic gene interaction, for cultivars in this study, exist an opposite dependency , as you can see in their rankings. According to GCA, 5/11-1 cultivar had higher values of GCA, so it is better than others, to insure a better inheritance of traits. Key words: cultivar, inheritance, gene, allelic and non allelic gene interaction, heterosis, hybrid ...
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ZHANETA SHAHINI1, HEKURAN VRAPI2*, SKENDER VARAKU2 1National Authority of Food. Durrës. Albania 2Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture & Environment,Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania *Corresponding author: e-mail: hvrapi@gmail.com; Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici), leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) are the most important wheat leaf diseases in costal area in Albania. Observations were done every weak starting from tillering till milk ripening in wheat production fields. It was carried out in "Kaloshi" farm in Grabian village, Lushnja the district of Fier in year 2011. Based on the data obtained during surveys conducted to determine the most frequent air diseases of wheat in the low coastal area, Lushnja, for 2011, we can say that: First affections from the powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) of wheat was observed since the first survey, March 15, with a level of disease incidence 3 %, and then during the middle of April disease incidence from diseases, was 12 %. During the beginning of April were observed Septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici) disease incidence by 5% and then at the end of May to the maximum value of 25%. Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) on leaves was observed in mid-April at the extent of 2 %, where at the end of May reached the maximum value of 23 %. Changes in disease epidemics were determined and showed the differences between the analyzed diseases. Key-words: Wheat, brown rust, septoria leaf blotch, powdery mildew, disease incidence ...
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NOC FASLLIA1 BAKI DERVISHI2* VALBON BRAHIMLLARI2 FIQIRI TAHIRI2, jANAQ MALE3 1Agricultural University of Tirana 2Center for Agricultural Transfer Technology of Fushe –Kruja 3SNV, Netherlands Development Organization Tirana *corresponding author e-mail: bakidervishi@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract The study was conducted at the experimental plots of the Agricultural Technology Transfer Center(ATTC) Fushe - Kruja, from 2013 to 2014. The objectives of this study were, recognition with bio morphology of the growth and development of Stevios plant under conditions of our country. The study design consists of 30 plant pots planted with the STEVIAS. Indicators studied, were: time of planting, the beginning of growth, plant growth height in cm, number of brothers, number of branches in the main branch, the average number of leaves, total number of leaves. Planting was carried out on 20 February 2013, followed by the onset of growth on 3/25/2013 to 3/04/2014, ripening and harvest in September 5-10 October. At the end of the production these results were taken according to the study indicators. The height of the plant was carried 71.53 ± 11.08cm, depending on feeding conditions and illumination which according to requirements of this plant is one of the most dominant factors. The average number of brothers per branch is to 10.6 ± 2.4, which shows a high potential for stevia plant production. The average number of leaves per branch is 48.13 ± 9.26, and with a total leaves of 517. 03 ± 176.25, which are quantitative harvestable indicators of plant. Weight of plant was conducted at 49.46 ± 4.987gr. Keyword; time of planting, the beginning of growth, height growth, number of brothers, number of branches  ...
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BELUL GIXHARI1*, HEKURAN VRAPI2, VALBONA HOBDARI1  1 Albanian Gene Bank, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania  3 Plant Protection Departments, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania * Corresponding author e-mail: gixharibelul@ubt.edu.al   Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Study for characterization of genetic diversity present in the pea germplasm stored in Albanian genebank was carried out in the Experimental Field of Agriculture University of Tirana during three growing seasons (2010, 2011, and 2012). The study analyzed 12 local pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes of different origins for 23 quantitative morphological characters and had the objective to characterize and select those with favourable characteristics for use in breeding programs. ANOVA, PCA and cluster analysis reveal considerable extent of diversity, and the association among different traits. Most of the quantitative morphological characters showed significant differences among important agro economic traits. Cluster analysis for morphological data divide the whole pea genotypes into three groups in respect of genetic diversity and similarity among pea accessions of different origin. Relationships analysis between the morphological characters and pea genotypes using Principal Coordinates’ analyses show that there are nine morphological characters with larger values in PC1 that account for 57.4% of total variance. The study identifies traits with agronomic interest which account for genetic diversity and the demarcation of distinguishable morphological groups which will facilitate the maintenance and agronomic evaluation of the collections. Key-words: Clusters analysis, genetic diversity, morphological pea characters ...
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Adrian DOKO*, Alban IBRALIU, Evan RROÇO Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania *Corresponding author e-mail: dokoadrian@gmail.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L., Ericaceae family) is a perennial subshrub and very important plants resource in North of Albania. The fruits of the bilberry are recognized for their bioactive properties and distinctive aroma and flavour. In the present study, the fruits collected from 10 different mountain regions of North and North East of Albania were analysed in order to determine their quantitative and qualitative features. The total amount of biologically active compounds in fresh fruits, were identified by LC-ESI/MS and their individual antioxidant capacities were evaluated by on-line HPLCABTS [1]. To data, 32 anthocyanins and flavonoids compounds have been isolated and identified from the fruits of Vaccinium myrtillus. The total amount of anthocyanins (%) varied from 0.15 to 0,51. Higher amounts of total phenolic and total anthocyanins (0.51 % and 1027.1 mg 100 g-1 dw) were detected in population collected from Laver Dardh zone of Puka district and the lowest amounts were detected in the population of Vermosh area of Malesia e Madhe district. Keywords: Vaccinium myrtillus L., North of Albania, anthocyanins, phenolics, flavonoids ...
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ALBERT KOPALI* ADRIAN DOKO  Department of Agro-Environment and Ecology, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania *Corresponding author e-mail: albertkopali@yahoo.it Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Agriculture is one of the most interested sectors in climate studies, because the agriculture activity is very sensitive to meteorological yearly progress as temperature and rain falls. Studying the dryness effects present of yearly periods is with a special interest in agriculture, because many plants are autumn and spring sowing and they feels the stress conditions that it is due to lack of rainfall. Repeating long drought periods combined with other reasons can cause potentially serious damage to water resources [1]. Adding to this conditions of climatic changing situation which according to numerous studies conducted on climate change and its effects, have shown an increasing trend in the values of average temperatures and a decrease in amount of rainfall which is evident on Mediterranean region and in Albania too [2]. Evaluation of ecological factors particularly determining the climatic dryness periods of the year, becomes more difficult when these assessments are made for local spaces. For the territorial planning of agricultural systems purposes and their management on local conditions, especially in dry and semi-dried areas, takes a significant determination of dryness year periods with which it is closely related the crop production. This study aims at determining the periods of dryness of the year in Albanian conditions, studying it closely linked with the expected climate change in the agricultural interest areas. Key words: climate, agro-clime, temperature, precipitation, drought period ...
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LINDITA BUSHATI1*, MARGARITA HYSKO2 1Biotechnology Department of, Natural Sciences Faculty, Tirana University, Albania 2Biology Department, Natural Sciences Faculty, Tirana University, Albania *Corresponding author e-mail: lindita.bushati@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Black Drin River joining White Drin and some other small rivers form the longest river of Albania, Drin River, 335 Km long. Drin has two distributaries, one of which empties directly into Adriatic Sea and the other one into Buna river, in Scutary (Shkoder). The Drin area is beautiful and very important for the Albanian economy, for the electricity and has a large agriculture activity as well. Unfortunately mismanagement of agricultural practices and the discharge of industrial and urban wastes into the river are causing a high pollution. River conservation is threatened by pollution. Drin river water is used by people for fishing, swimming and irrigation of plants and the pollution of this river is a problematic issue in environment and human health. We monitored microbial and chemical water pollution of Scutary area of Drin, where Drin goes into Bojana, during 2012-2013 and a high water pollution level was recorded. Key words: Microbial pollution, fecal coliforms, CFU, Drin, Bojana  ...
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ANDREJEVA GOLLOSHI1*; ARTA LIKA2; MARGARITA HYSKO1 1Department of Biology, Natural Sciences Faculty, University of Tirana, Albania 2Department of Biology and Chemistry, Natural Sciences Faculty, University of Shkodra, Albania *Corresponding author e-mail: andrejeva.golloshi@fshn.edu.al Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Lura Park with surface of 1,280 hectares is located in northern Albania, in the eastern part of the massive mountain Lura Crown. This park has 14 glacial lakes, located at the height of 1350-1720 meters that create a colorful and attractive environment. In winter these lakes are covered by ice. The largest lake is the Great Lake with an area of 32 hectares. But in almost all the lakes the natural balance is broken, as a result of demographic changes of region and usage without any criteria of the vegetation around the lakes. Disposal of inert materials and solid waste, as well as those of liquid in many water environments of Lura, has damaged their appearance and quality. It is appreciated the quality of some lakes of Lura in different points, with microbial parameters in determining the total number of microorganisms (HET) and the presence of coliforms and by comparing them with international norms allowed for surface waters. The results obtained, showed low levels of coliforms in the water lakes, which is within the limits allowed. The greater this contamination was observed during summer, and less in the winter. Keywords: Lura Park, Lura’s lake, HET, total coliforms, Water fecal contamination ...
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Vojislava Bursić1, Gorica Vuković2, Dušan Marinković1, Magdalena Cara*, Tijana Zeremski3, željka jeličić-marinković4, Marija Zgomba1 1Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, Department of Environmental and Plant Protection, Novi Sad, Serbia 2Institute of Public Health of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia *Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, AUT, Department of Plant Protection, Tirana, Albania 3Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia 4Josip Juraj Strossmayer University in Osijek, Department of Biology, Osijek, Croatia *e-mail: magdacara@ubt.edu.al Donload PDF Fulltext Abstract Pyriproxyfen is an insect growth regulator that affects the physiology of morphogenesis, reproduction and embryogenesis of insects. The molecule of pyriproxyfen bears little resemblance to endogenous insect juvenile hormone (JH), but it affects JH and ecdysteroid titers in a variety of arthropods. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array (HPLC-DAD) method is a widely used method for the analyses of pyriproxyfen. Although the methods have been remarkably improved, tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) systems with significant advantages have gradually replaced HPLC-DAD in many analyses. The aim of this study, was the evaluation of the two methods for linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) selectivity and repeatability for the determination of pyriproxyfen in water solutions. Using HPLC-DAD the obtained LOD was 0.01 μg/ml with the LOQ of 0.03 μg/ml. The linearity was over 0.99 for the concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0 µg/ml with the repeatability RSD less than 11.7%. The LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the RSD values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0–6.8% and 2.0–7.7%. The LC-MS/MS method exhibits linearity (R2>0.99) for the concentrations from 1.0 to 100.0 ng/ml with the repeatability RSD less than 12.7%. The obtained LOD and LOQ was 0.1 ng/ml and 1.0 ng/ml, respectively. The HPLC-DAD performed well in terms of various validation parameters, but showed a very high LOD and LOQ (considering low concentration level of pyriproxyfen used in mosquito treatment) compared to LC–MS/MS.  Keywords - HPLC-DAD, LC-MS/MS, pyriproxyfen, water solution ...
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LUSH SUSAJ1*, ELISABETA SUSAJ2, FATON JASHARI3 1Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Department of Horticulture, Kodër Kamëz, 1029, Tirana, Albania 2 University “Fan S. Noli”, Faculty of Agriculture, Korçë, Albania 3 Municipality of Vushtria, Kosovo * Corresponding author e-mail: lsusaj63@hotmail.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi) is one of the most ancient and disseminated species in the riverbanks, forests and villages of the Northern Albania. An ampelographic and ampelometric study of the mature leaf characters was carried out during 2009-2013 in three wild grapevines populations, located in three river basins.  Individuals of the wild grapevines populations belongig to the Mati River Valley, the lower part of Drini Valley and Shkreli Valley, were compared by means of mature leaf characters, using IPGRI, OIV and UPOV ampelographic methods. There was found that from twentseven observed, measured and evaluated mature leaf characters, fifteen of them did not show any significant differences between three wild grapevine populations, while for twelve characters, such as size of blade (length of N1 and length of petiole), number of lobes, length of tooth N2, ratio length/width of tooth N2, and leaf angle between N1 and N3 showed significant differences. The highest value for the size of blade was measured in Drini Valley wild grapevine population, followed by Mati Valley population, while Shkreli Valley wild population showed the lowest size of blade. The same results were observed for length of tooth N2 and the ratio length/width of tooth N2. There was observed an inverse correlation between the size of blade and the angle between N1 and N3 measured at the first ramification. The highest value for angle (a + b) was measured for Shkreli Valley, while the lowest value was measured for Drini Valley wild grapevine population. Keywords: wild grapevine, leaf characters, population, Drini Valley, Mati Valley, Shkreli Valley ...
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BARDHOSH FERRAJ1*, TOKLI THOMAJ1, LUSH SUSAJ1, GJOVALIN GJELOSHI2 Agricultural University of Tirana, Department of Horticulture, KodërKamëz, Tirana, Albania 2DBUMK, Lezhë * Corresponding author Email: bardhoshvl@yahoo.it Download PDF Fulltext Abstract In our country Kiwi was imported from France during the 1970s, a period that coincides with its cultivation in the Republic of Macedonia and in other regional countries especially in the ex-republics of Yugoslavia. The first saplings were placed in a national nursery in Lushnja and according to the researchers of that period this plant adapted well to the conditions, providinghigh experimental yields. In the Albanian market, the Kiwi fruit was introduced after 1991, with imported products from Greece and Italy. While in 1994 the first kiwi seedlings imported from Montenegro were planted in Balldre-Lezhe area. To scientifically conduct the production of Kiwi seedlings from vegetative rootstocks, specialists from the University of Agriculture and farmers in Lezha District conducted different rooting tests in greenhouses with controlled temperatures and an automated irrigation system.The plantings were conducted at the beginning of every month starting from May till October. The experiment was conceived in 7 variants and 3 repetitions, while planting 150 vegetative rootstock\variant or approximately 1200 vegetative rootstocks in total. The testing variant was planted without any kind of stimulation. At the end of the experiment it resulted that the best rooting was achieved from planting the vegetative rootstocks during the months of June and July, while the worst rooting occurred from planting the rootstocks during the months of May and September. The optimal percentage of IBA Crystalline is 2500 and 3000 ppm and IBA talc is 2000 ppm. Keywords: vegetative rootstocks, variant, repetition, spry irrigation system, phytohormones, IBA talc, IBA crystalline.  ...
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VJOLLCA VLADI1*, FATOS HARIZAJ2, VALDETE VORPSI2, MAGDALENA CARA3 1Food Safety and Veterinary Institute. Tirana, Albania. 2Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, AUT, Department of Plant Production, Tirana, Albania 3Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, AUT, Department of Plant Protection, Tirana, Albania *Corresponding authore-mail: vjollcavladi@hotmail.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract A liquid chromatographic (LC) method using UV detection was used to study the degradation of imidacloprid in tomatoes grown in greenhouses. A liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile/methanol (60/40, v/v) and a cleanup step with Florisil were combined with LC to isolate, recover, and quantities the pesticide. Average recoveries obtained at spike levels of 0.03 and 0.40 mg/kg were 93.2-94.7%. Determination limits were 0.012 mg/kg. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouses located in Durres. Treatment was performed using Confidor20 EC (Imidacloprid), an insecticide with a systemic action. The aim was to confirm the residue of Imidacloprid in tomatoes and to find the decline curve after the last application in minimal and maximal concentration, 0.25% and 0.5% respectively. Samples of tomato fruits were taken in an interval of 1, 3, 5, 7 days after the application. The degradation of Imidacloprid, in maximal concentration exceeds the allowed limit of 7 days, this is day of PHI, thus influencing harvest and marketing. Key words:Imidacloprid, Greenhouse Tomato, Pesticide Residues ...
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VJOLLCA VLADI1*, FATOS HARIZAJ2, VALDETE VORPSI2, MAGDALENA CARA3 1Food Safety and Veterinary Institute. Tirana, Albania. 2Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, AUT, Department of Plant Production, Tirana, Albania 3Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, AUT, Department of Plant Protection, Tirana, Albania *Corresponding author e-mail: vjollcavladi@hotmail.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract A simple method for the determination of imidacloprid residues in tomatoes, grown in greenhouses, has been developed. Two procedures for extraction (acetone/ethyl acetate; acetonitrile/methanol) of the analyte from the sample matrix are suggested. Glass wool and Florisil column chromatography were used for purification of sample solution. The technique used for detection was Liquid Chromatography equipped with UV detector. LCMS was used as a confirmatory method. The recoveries ranged from 92.4 - 98.8 % for acetone/ethyl acetate extraction and from 97.5- 99.1% for acetonitrile/methanol extraction. Tomatoes treated with imidacloprid using commercial insecticide formulation - Confidor were analyzed using both procedures. There are differences between the test results obtained by the two procedures at 5% significance level. The acetonitrile/methanol extraction is recommended for use at determination of imidacloprid in tomatoes. Key words: HPLC analysis, Imidacloprid, Tomato, Pesticide Residues ...
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Anile Medha1*, Margarita Hysko2 1 Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Shkodra, Shkodra-Albania 2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Tirana-Albania * Corresponding author  e-mail: anila.matija@yahoo.it Download PDF Fulltext Abstract: The Buna River is situated near Shkodra town, between the hill of Rozafa castle and Taraboshi Mountain.  It is the only emissary of the Shkodra Lake. Buna River is exposed to different sources of pollution related to urban pollution, sewerage discharge, agricultural activity, and climate change which are associated with an increase in water levels, erosion and floods. This research assesses the quality of water in Buna River, based on the microbiological and physical-chemical analysis. Samples were taken at three different points during years 2013-2014. The analysis will stress out data about heterotrophic and fecal coliform general characteristics, figures, and the role as indicators of water pollution and also information about PH, conductibility and the temperature of water. Microbiological contamination tests show relatively large water contamination, especially in the first sample point where Buna River begins. The high level presence of these microorganisms indicates that the water quality of the river is bad according to standards, presenting a risk to health for all the organisms that inhabit the sweet waters of Buna River. Keywords: Buna River, fecal coliform, heterotrophic, urban pollution, contaminate, water quality ...
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NAZMI AJAZI1, VATH TABAKU2, KRISTO QENDRO3 1Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Management of Water 2Faculty of Forestry Sciences AUT 3Dajti Express sh.p.k *Corresponding author e-mail: nazmiajazi@gmail.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract A powerful plant with special, botanical characteristics and a longevity over 300 years, specific in Drini i Zi’s valley. The treatment of rooting system that is related to terrene’s factors in the pond of Drin river. Chemical treatment of “Juglandine” and the damage that it causes in other types of plants such as: apple tree, etc. The study of “mikoriza” rooting system and earth conditions of  its spread. The influence of climatic changes and the precautions that are taken to adapt these plants; climatic profile of Drin’s valley, the tendence of changes and expectations. It is treated the problem of heterogamy, the role of late frost in this region, the graphic of temperatures’ spread in last ten years. The role of crusified pollination in nuts’ breeding, as we have to do with a valley zone. It is treated the cultivation’s  biotechnology; difficult  reasons of  breeding in natural way, because of phenol. This is the main reason that we want to develop the technology of artificial sapling. Growth through vegetative breeding, the use of new grafting technology. We treat a new way of graft, the time of isolation, the way of treatment after grafting until the laying. The species that are used in graft, the specification of some special qualities that make irreplaceable the organic connection between them. Phytosanitary protection in adaption with climate that species require.The graphic of spread and recomandation of new zones that will be analyzed by us. Chemical analysis and alluvial lands. The process “katena” which is treated in adaption with configuration of rocks in Drin’s valley. Tabular data about mature lands, that are recomanded to be cultivated with nut trees in this region. Keywords: biotechnology,treatment,breeding,adaption,phytosanitary ...
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NAZMI AJAZI1, VATHTABAKU2, KRISTO QENDRO3 1Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Management of Water 2Faculty of Forestry Sciences AUT 3Dajti Express sh.p.k *Corresponding author e-mail: nazmiajazi@gmail.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract The treatment of hazelnuts in ecosystem and their importance related to other nut trees. These trees can be grown in hard terrenes with little qualities, so this fact has made hazelnut favorable to cultivate in Mallakastra district. Botanic characteristics and the history of its development in the district. The arrival of variety “visoka” in Albania, the spread and  priorities that it took, the adaption with  phytoclimatic and terrene’s factors. It is treated the problem of cultivation, the schemes of planting, the recommendation from current experience and the priorities. The agro technique that is used for cultivation and all relevant services, which are connected with development of this  cultivar. Priorities’ classification between planting in separated  blocks and in plantation. The graphic of costs and the performance for each case.The cultivation’s way in Balkan region and the comparisons with our country. The tables that present land qualities, which are recommended according to the study about Mallakastra district.The graphic of land plots that are speeded in the area. Also the chemical analyses of earth. The techniques of saplings production and given results.Marketing condition and the production priorities of this variety. Key words:treatment, cultivation, agro technique, quality, chemical, adaption, biotechnology ...
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ANXHELA DAUTI1*, GEZIM KAPIDANI2, BLERINA PUPULEKU1, NIKOLETA KALLAJXHIU1, ADMIR JANCE1 1University “Aleksandër Xhuvani”, FNS, Department of Biology and Chemistry, Elbasan, Albania, 2University of Tirana, FNS, Department of Biology, Tirane, Albania, * Corresponding author Email: dauti.anxhela@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract The genus Anthemis L. is the second largest genus of the tribe Anthemideae of Asteraceae family. It comprises about 210 species, distributed widely in Europe, south-west Asia, north and north-east Africa and extending into extreme southern Arabia and tropical east Africa. The plants of genus Anthemis are annual and perennial herbs with beautiful and attractive flowers. The article includes the palynomorphological study of the main members of genus Anthemis in Albania. In this article submitted comparative features of the species: Anthemis altissima , Anthemis carpatica, Anthemis chia, Anthemis orientalis, Anthemis tomentosa, Anthemis triumfetti, Anthemis arvensis and Anthemis tinctoria. The material for the study was obtained in NationalHerbarium in Tirana. For the study of palynomorphological features are analyzed 31 pollen grains from each species. The treatment of material is made with acetolysis method and basic fuchsine. The fixing of pollen grains is made with glycerin gelatin. The study and photos of pollen grains are realized with light microscope with 1000x power. The pollen grains of plants above are spheroidal or oblate spheroidal, three furrows three pores. The exine appearsthick and has two-layers. The sculpture of exine is echinate. The work is part of the palynological study of general members in Asteraceae family in our country. Key Words: Anthemis, palynomorphological, pollen grains, exine, spines ...
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Hasan Cani 1, Arsen Proko2, Vath Tabaku 2  1Ministry of  Environment 2Faculty of  Forestry Sciences AUT *Corresponding author e-mail: hasan_cani@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Forests are the dominant land use in Albania, occupying almost 1.5 million hectares [11], but c.a. 70% of the forest area belong coppices and shrub forests, as the results of unsustainable practices, intensive cutting and overgrazing. Forest ecosystems serve many ecological roles, including regulation of the planet's carbon and water cycles. Forests are also important components of economic systems. Research in the Forest Ecophysiology studies on the Faculty of Forestry Sciences is intended to produce biological knowledge that can be used to better manage forest resources for sustainable production of economic and non-economic values and aims to improve the understanding of past and current dynamics of Mediterranean and temperate forests. The overarching goal is to quantify the influence of genetics, climate, environmental stresses, and forest management inputs on forest productivity and carbon sequestration, and to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying these responses.Process-based models open the way to useful predictions of the future growth rate of forests and provide a means of assessing the probable effects of variations in climate and management on forest productivity. As such they have the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional forest growth and yield models. This paper discusses the basic physiological processes that determine the growth of plants, the way they are affected by environmental factors and how we can improve processes that are well-understood such as growth from leaf to stand level and productivity. The study trays to show a clear relationship between temperature and water relations and other factors affecting forest plant germination and growth that are often looked at separately. This integrated approach will provide the most comprehensive source for process-based modelling, which is valuable to ecologists, plant physiologists, forest planners and environmental scientists [10]. Actually the Albanian vegetation is presented in two different appearances: ·         on one hand the existence of the virgin forests, generally located far from dwelling centres, because the lack of the infrastructure and, ·         on the other hand the existence of degraded forests, located near dwelling centres because of intensive harvesting, abusive cutting and growing. By the consequences the degraded ecosystems are under an ecological stress and their rehabilitation is very difficult. To develop low cost methodologies for improving vegetation which will result in functional ecosystems in far degraded Mediterranean areas by means of physiological studies is very important and a new scientific field in Albanian forestry. The study is focused on seed germination physiology and seedling stress selection of some native evergreen and broadleaves oak species in order to determine the seed germination dependency on temperature and humidity, methods releasing germination beanies in species candidate for improving vegetation, the sensitivity of the germinating seeds and the seedlings on extreme temperatures, and the selection of drought and cold resistant seedling among populations of different geographical origin. Keywords: Ecophytosiology, forestry adaptation, regeneration, ecological stress, oaks ...
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HASAN CANI1, ARSEN PROKO2, VATH TABAKU2 1Ministry of Environment, 2Faculty of Forestry Sciences AUT *Corresponding author e-mail: hasan_cani@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract The forest biotechnology on the Faculty of Forestry Sciences is an interdisciplinary research dedicated to the development and application of advanced technology for the enhancement of forest regeneration and adaptation. Technical capabilities include Eco physiology, forest ecology, tissue culture and adaptation to climate change mitigation. These techniques are also being used to improve nursery culture regimes, pest’s management by biological fighting, planting regimes and new product development for a variety of broadleaf species (Oaks under ecological stress). Successful regeneration relies on the application of work from many forestry disciplines toward the common goal. At the center of any successful program is the production of high-quality seedlings that have god performance on reforestation site. Performance of an reforestation site depends on seedlings growth potential to be expressed. Seedlings growth potential is influenced by the inherent genetic make-up of source material and the culture used during nursery development. If these attributes can be directed toward improving seedling growth on a reforestation site, then the potential productivity of reforestation/afforestation will be increased. Disciplines that are oriented toward improving these faces of producing high-quality seedlings are the main focus of Forest biotechnology, the main objectives of which have been: (i) defining forest species through ecophysiological parameters; (ii) developing advanced propagation systems through somatic embryogenesis tissue culture technology; (iii) applying ecophysiological assessment techniques in supporting seedling production, improved quality and reforestation site performance. The first results, presented in this paper, have been optimistic, but still the profound studies are needed. The main benefit impacts using biotechnology methods in forestry are: (i) a model of sustainable development, (ii) maintaining forest biodiversity, (iii) extending to new areas. As the conclusion the Commercialization of biological technologies for forest tree species promise to dramatically lower raw material costs, maximize processing efficiencies, minimize environmental impacts, and improve product performances Key words: tissue culture, ecophysiology, forest oak species, cost effectiveness ...
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Hairi Ismaili* Adriatik Çakalli Agricultural University of Tirana, Gene Bank. Tirana, Albania *Coresponding author Email:hairiismaili@yahoo.fr Downoad PDF Fulltext Abstract Macroexplants consisting of two nodes with leaves were prepared by the tip of sprigs of 20 autochthonous cvs in the olive collection of Valias. In addition to Control treatments with IBA 2g/l-1, 5g/l-1, and 8g/l-1 were applied at the beginning of spring. Morphological and physiological exchanges were controlled for the temperature of substrate and environment 24⁰C and 18⁰C and for air humidity 95%, throungh mist propagation method..The results exposed the genetic origin and endogenous predisposition as the beginner of rhizogenesis which fluctuated from 4.6% to 27%. Whereas the auxin increased rhizogenesis 28.7 - 48.9% as per concentrations compared to Control. The cultivars had good callogenesis of 43.6/ 95.4% (5>8>2>0 g/l-1 IBA), whereas rhizogenic capacity was average 14.7/63.6%, conditioned by hormones. Correlation between callogenesis and rhizogenesis was considerably good for cv. Kushan, Kaninjot, Freng (r²=0.93) and average for cv Kotruvsi, u Kuq, Mixan etc (r²=0.55). Maximum per rooting was 95.2% whereas the number of adventives roots was 8.8 At this phenophase of meristematic development use of dosage 5g/l-1 is more justifiable than with the two other concentrations ofIBA and Control (r²=0.94). Keywords. Macroexplant, Rhizogenesis, Callogenesis, Olive, Morphological, Cultivar  ...
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SHUKRI FETAHU1*, SALI ALIU1, IMER RUSINOVCI1, FETAH ELEZI3, KEMAJL BISLIMI2, AVNI BEHLULI1, QENDRIM SHABANI1 1University of Prishtina, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Department of Crop Production, Prishtina, Kosova 2University of Prishtina, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Science, Department of Biology, Prishtina, Kosova 3Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Dep. of Plant Production, Tirana Albania * Corresponding author E-mail: shfetahu@hotmail.com  & shukri.fetahu@uni-pr.edu Download PDF Fulltext Abstract: In order to determine variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, for six maize hybrids (MH), it was set up a field trial on randomized complete block design (RCDB), with three replications, with 6 MH: BC38W, BC408, ZP434, NSSC444, ESP500 and LUCE, during the years 2010 and 2011 (Y), at Experimental Farm (EF), Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary in Prishtina, located in geographical position: N 42º 38'97" and E 21º 08'45" and 570 MASL. Growth rate, biomass and dry matter of maize performance are depending from specific characteristics: maize hybrids (MH), environmental condition (EC) and cropping system (CS). Information on silage maize yield can help silage growers and users, to choose hybrids that best fit their needs. The physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, were conducted according to the formula: (MH-6 x Y-2 x P4 x R3) =144 combinations. Hybrid selection for a specific location, suitable for the agro-ecological condition is one of the essential principles for improving yield for silage or grain, without increasing of cost of maize production. Means results for evaluated maize hybrids and parameters were: Absolute growth rate (AGRµ=5.43), crop growth rate (CGRµ=30.98), total plant biomass (TPBµ=585.39 g plant-1) and total dry matter (TDMµ=22.52 ton ha-1).The aim of this study was to determine physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, in suitable agro-ecological conditions of Kosovo. The obtained results were with wide range variability and high significant differences between hybrids and years on the level P< 0.01. Keywords: Maize hybrid, biomass, dray matter, growth rate, yield ...
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MARIANA NIKOLLA1*, LUMTURI SENA2, VALBONA KOLANECI2, JONIDA BOU DIB (LEKOCAJ)2, OLTA  SOKOLI2 1Agricultural University of Tirana, Mathematics and Informatics Dept.  2Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania. *Corresponding author email:  mariana_nikolla@live.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the main vegetables cultivated in our country. It covers about 3,000 hectares and occupies an important place in the structure of cultivation. Its cultivation in large areas is done because it firstly is used widely in our traditional cuisine and secondly, provides high incomes per area. The yield per area depends from the agricultural technology implemented, the type of culture and the cultivated areas. In our climate conditions, the pepper is much favorite and can be successfully cultivated in the open field and in protected environments. In the open field the pepper can be cultivated in three directions: For early production, semi-early (middle) and later production, while in protected environments it is cultivated during winter and early spring, where frosts and low temperatures do not allow its growth and production. It is known that for the production of each culture are used various inputs. In this study, in order to analyze the pepper production efficiency cultivated in the greenhouses of Lushnja district, DEA model was used (Data Enveloppent Analysis). The DEA models represent one of the most important applications of mathematical programming in the agricultural economy. The chosen Output is the yield of pepper cultivated in greenhouses (q/are), while the inputs include: manure (q/are), fertilizer (q/dyn), liquid crystal manure (q/are), pesticides (q/are) and irrigation (m3/are). From our analysis we found out that several units 4 gave a DEA efficiency of 100%, while other units (municipalities of Lushnja district) are less efficient. The aim of DEA model is not only to analyze but also to improve the efficiency of the inefficient units. Through this model, the weights of the composite unit which resulted more efficient than the non-efficient units were found, which means that this unit produces output greater than or equal to the output of the unit under study, requiring smaller or equal amounts of input. Key Words: Efficiency, Agricultural production, DEA model, Composite unit, Pepper, Lushnja district ...
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EFROSINI KOKALARI (TELI)*, ALKETA LAME, XHENSILA GRECA, ALBANA JANO Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences Tirana *Corresponding author E-mail:efrosiniteli@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract: Oleuropein is the most abundant phenolic compound in olive leaves. This compound has been extensively studied for human health benefits. In recent years oleuropein, is proved to be an efficient inhibitor against the corrosion of metals and alloys. The use of chemical inhibitors has been limited, because of the environmental threat. The increasing ecological awareness among scientists have led to the development of “green” alternatives to mitigate corrosion. It is very important to choose cheap and safety handled compounds to be used as corrosion inhibitors.The extract of oleuropein from olive leaves, represent a great inhibitive action about 93%, against the corrosion of carbon steel in acidic media. Oleuropein, a natural product of the secoiridoid group, is a heterosidic ester of elenolic deteracid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol, containing a molecule of glucose, the hydrolysis of which yields elenolic acid glucoside and hydroxytyrosol. Oleuropein from the olive leaves was obtained by alcoholic extraction in room temperature using microwave irradiation. The extract was stored at 4oC and in the dark. The product of extraction was analyzed with HPLC, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy, in order to define it’s chemical structure. Also we defined the yield, density and molecular weight of the product. The product of extraction was oleuropein and we propose to use it as corrosion inhibitor. Keywords: extraction, olive leaf, oleuropein, corrosion inhibitor ...
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Elva Çaushi*, Pandeli Marku Faculty of Forest Sciences, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania *Corresponding author email: alcaushi@abcom.al Download PDF Fulltext Abstract There are about 300 companies producing furniture and about 250 small and medium enterprises (SME) producing sawn timber, which operate in the field of wood industry in Albania.  This wood industry production is being challenged by the increasing demand in the domestic market, ranging from kitchen furniture to office and schools furniture, bedroom furniture, doors, windows, and saw timber in different dimensions. The production from the wood industry can fulfill about 80% of the domestic market demand. The remaining 20% of domestic market needs in wood furniture are afforded by import. Small entities do not make serious  investment in technology. Big enterprises such as  Ardeno in Tirana, Biçaku in Durres, Shaga in Tirana, Ital-wood in Elbasan, Dafinori in Shkoder, etc., have made remarkable investments in their technology. They have installed several mechanized lines of production.  So, Ital-wood has invested in a mechanized saw timber production line; Bicaku in wood panels coated with PVC lines; Dafinori in a wood handrail production  technologic line; Ardeno in wooden chairs production technologic lines, and Shaga in the production of furniture with particle panels. These enterprises are using modern numerical command machines, vacuum presses for gluing PVC, cutting equipment for panels with laser ray, finishing lines with electrostatic field, modern lines of pneumatic transport for wood dust etc. These investments in new technologies have increased the quantity and quality of native wood products. Keywords: wood, furniture, timber, market, company, technology, investment ...
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1Julian Shehu, 1Alma Imeri, 1Rudina Koci, 2Alfred Mullaj, 1Agricultural university of Tirana, Department of Plant Production, 2Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Biology Download PDF Fulltext Abstract The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds) and often have a high nature conservation interest. They rarely exist in isolation and form an integral part of many estuaries, other tidal inlets and bays. The objectives of this study are flora and vegetation of salt marshes. In this study, on the basis of field surveys, is given a phytosociological classification of the Albanian salt marshes vegetation by the European standard methods of phytosociology (Zurich-Montpellier). The salt marsh communities of Albania are poor in endemism and generally similar to relevant vegetation types elsewhere in the Mediterranean. The flora of coastal salt marshes is differentiated into levels according to the plants' individual tolerance of salinity and water table levels. The flora of coastal salt marshes is differentiated into levels according to the plants' individual tolerance of salinity and water table levels. Coastal salt marshes of Albania are offered a number of 62 taxa, extended in 16 diverse families. The most presented families are Chenopodiaceae 24 %, followed by Poaceae and Asteraceae with 11%. Salt marshes are populated by halophytes, plants that can live under saline conditions. Plant species diversity is low, since the flora must be tolerant of salt and anoxic mud substrate [4]. The most common salt marsh plant communities in coastal area of Albania are salt meadows dominated by glasswort (Salicornia europaea), pioneer marsh communities, perennial vegetation of marine saline mud’s mainly composed of scrub such as Sarcocornia fruticosa, Sarcocornia perennis and belonging to the Sarcocornetea fruticosi class, tall rush salt marshes dominated by Juncus maritimus or J. acutus (Juncetalia maritimi), halo-psammophile meadows mainly dominated by Plantago crassifolia, Saccharum ravennae, Scirpus holoschoenus (Plantaginion crassifoliae), [4, 5]. The plant communities’composition of salt marshes area is rather variable depending on the nature of the soil. The development from constantly submerged areas and ending in areas that are always above water level is marked by the increasing diversity which follows the arrival of a range of new species [7]. Coastal salt marshes rank among the systems with the highest productivity of any in the world. High productivity of salt marshes is just one reason we are protecting and restoring these valuable "liquid assets." Key words: plant salt marshes, flora and vegetation, Zosteretea Marinae, Arthrocnemetea; Juncetea maritimi; coastal vegetation; halophytes; phytosociological analysis ...
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1Julian Shehu, 1Alma Imeri, 1Lirika Kupe, 2Alfred Mullaj, 1Agricultural university of Tirana, Department of Plant Production, 2Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Biology Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Albania, whose territory comprises many types of habitats and is characterized by a rich biological diversity, is particularly vulnerable to the threats posed by alien invasive species. The spread of invasive alien species is creating complex and far-reaching challenges that threaten both the natural biological riches of the earth and the well-being of our people. While the problem is global, the nature and severity of the impacts on society, economic life, health, and natural heritage are distributed unevenly across nations and regions. Some aspects of the global invasive alien species (IAS) problem require solutions tailored to the specific values, needs, and priorities of nations while others call for consolidated action by the larger world community. Preventing the international movement of invasive alien species and coordinating a timely and effective response to invasions requires cooperation and collaboration among governments, economic sectors, non-governmental organizations, and international treaty organizations. Many features have been attributed to invasive species and invaded ecosystems, but none are universal and invasive species tend to have a suite of traits rather than all of themThe large numbers of alien organisms introduced into Albania do not generally endanger the biodiversity on a large scale. Key-words: alien species, invasive alien species (IAS), introduction, intentional introduction, establishment ...
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ELVIRA BAZINA1* BARRY MURPHY2 LIRI DINGA3     1 Natural Resources Sustainability and Export Markets Development Consultant/Tirana, Albania 2NGS Sequencing Service Manager, Source Bioscience/1 Orchard Place, Nottingham Business Park, NG8 6PX, Nottingham, UK 3University of Tirana, Faculty of Natural Sciences/Tirana, Albania * Corresponding author e-mail: elbazina@gmail.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract: Albania continues to be a significant supplier of wild Medicinal and Aromatic Plants to the world markets of which Sage remains the major export item accounting for about 70% of the total sage imports to the US in 2013. Sage plants were randomly picked from different cultivation sites in Albania (North/Koplik; Southeast/Skrapar and South/Libohove) in order to screen genetic diversity amongst them employing Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers using twenty decameric oligonucleotide primers. A total of 2132 DNA bands were generated of which notably clear and scorable were 1555 (from 150 to 1999bp). Primers produced between 63 and 156 bands per Sage plant with an average of 107 bands per primer. Cultivated Sage plant generated between 112 to166 DNA bands with an average of 143 bands per plant. DNA banding patterns, obtained from the Shimadzu Multina PCR-RAPD analysis, were quite polymorphic and were used to carry out hierarchical cluster analysis using the average linkage between groups method of SPSS version 22. The dendrogram showed splitting of the North cultivated Sage from the Southern (southeast and south) group due to (dis)similarity in climate and soil structure/texture. Southeast cultivated Sage plants exhibited some genetic diversity within the group (intrinsic factors driven). This study indicates that RAPDs were fast and easy to use and proved to be efficient discriminatory tools detecting a high level of polymorphism within the same species (intraspecific level) which is explained with ecological variation and the genetic make-up of each individual. Keywords: Sage; cultivation; Albania; PCR-RAPDs; electropherogram, dendrogram ...
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IMER RUSINOVCI1*, SALI ALIU1, SHUKRI FETAHU1, KEMAJL BISLIMI2, MENTOR THAQI1, NIKOLLAQ BARDHI3 1University of Prishtina, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science, Prishtina 2University of Prishtina, Faculty of Natural Science, Department of Biology, Prishtina. 3Agricultural University of Tirana, Department of Plant Production, Tirana *Corresponding author, e-mail; imer. rusinovci@uni-pr. edu Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Grasslands represent a land-use which is effective and has great economical importance in the European agriculture. Grasslands represent an important and effective source of energy and proteins to ruminants, and combine high yield stability and draught resistance with low tillage operations and pesticide use and thus leading to good environmental conditions. Furthermore, good management practice in grasslands provides high potential of carbon sequestration in soils, resulting in climate change mitigation. The field experiment were carried out on a field study was conducted in the central part of Kosovo, respectively Lipjani location 15 km near the capitol city of Prishtina. The plot sizes were 81. 5x 8m per plot or 12 m2. The fertilization also was used in quantity 80 kg N ha -1. In experiment was including four treatments: C- Control (normal cutting without harrowing); Cutting regime include; A-One week early without harrowing, B- One week later without harrowing and H-With harrowing. The samples were decomposed with concentrated HNO3 at 250°C in Ultra-Clave from Milestone (Milestone microwave Ultra clave III). The samples were diluted to 10 % concentrated HNO3 before analysis. The results were obtained in our study demonstrated that substantial differences in mineral composition exist in grasslands. The four treatments had considerable variation in mineral composition. The Aluminum (Al) and Calcium (Ca) content ranged from 0. 36 to 0. 19 and 5. 07 to 7. 31 g kg-1 respectively. Key words; Grassland, treatments, harrowing, mineral composition.  ...
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AZEM BARDHI1, BESNIK GJONGECAJ2* 1M.Sc., PhD student, Department of Plant Production, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania 2Prof. Dr., Department of Agro-environment and Ecology, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania *Corresponding author e-mail: nikgjongecaj@gmail.com Download PDF Full-text Abstract The pluviometric deficit is the part of water amount evapotranspirated from the field but not getting replaced by the rainfall in a given period of time. That is why the pluviometric deficit could get quantified only when both, the potential evapotranspiration and rainfall are determined quantitatively. However, the pluviometric deficit is made of two dimensions: duration and magnitude. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study done throughout Albania on the duration of pluviometric deficit. For this, the dependencies of potential evapotranspiration and rainfall, respectively, over time are determined by applying the regression analysis, after the data on sun radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and precipitation are collected from 56 meteorological stations throughout Albania and over six years. All of these functions are plotted in individual graphs and the duration of pluviometric deficit is determined by equalizing the function of potential evapotranspiration over time with the respective function of rainfall over time. The results are going to be used to classify the Albanian climate on humidity and aridity scales. Keywords: potential evapotranspiration; rainfall;pluviometric deficit ...
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FERDI BRAHUSHI1*, ENDRIT KULLAJ2 1Department of Agro Environment & Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture & Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana – ALBANIA 2Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture & Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana – ALBANIA *Corresponding author, e-mail: brahushi@hotmail.com; fbrahushi@ubt.edu.al Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pesticides residues in medicinal plants was achieved by using extraction of plant material with organic solvent, clean up procedure and followed by detection with chromatography techniques. Among the detected pesticide residuesin the wild–collected plants as Malva sylvestris, Fragaria vesca, Bellis perennis were DDT, Dimethoat, Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyriphos-ethyl, Carbendazim/Benomyl, Acetamiprid and Diphenylamine. Whereas in the cultivated medicinal plants as Calendula officinalis, Centaurea cyani, Salvia officinalis, Sideritis raeseri, the most common detected pesticide residues were Dimethoat, Chlorpyriphos, Pirimiphos-methyl, DDT and Carbendazim. The presence of pesticides in medicinal plant is related to the past use of pesticides as DDT and actual use of pesticides like Dimethoat, Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyriphos, Acetamiprid, etc. Therefore, the quality of medicinal plants can be evaluated through estimation of pesticides residues in medicinal plants and comparison of the obtained values with acceptable limit values. Key words: medicinal plant, organic production, pesticides, residues, MRLs ...
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SUSANN AUER and JUTTA LUDWIG-MÜLLER Technische Universität Dresden, Institute für Botanik, 01062 Dresden, Germany *Corresponding author, E-mail: Jutta.Ludwig-Mueller@tu-dresden.de Download PDF Fulltext Abstract: The clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae infects economically important Brassica crops such as oilseed rape and vegetable brassicas. Clubroot results in abnormally growing roots and restricts the flow of water and nutrients to the upper plant parts, thereby inducing wilting. Yield loss affects about half the percentage of infected plants. Due to its complex and well-adapted life cycle the pathogen is difficult to control by chemical and cultural means and therefore continues to spread around the globe. Infested fields can no longer be used effectively for cultivation of crop plants for at least the next ten years. Despite costly breeding of resistant cultivars, recent research leans towards alternative, low-impact and environmentally friendly methods to control clubroot. To this end we have previously identified the endophyte Acremonium alternatum, a known biological control agent in several countries, to show promising antagonistic effects in clubroot-infected A. thaliana and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa). Here, we will describe its effect on the growth, development and clubroot control of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). While the clubroot symptoms were not clearly reduced after co-inoculation with A. alternatum and P. brassicae on oilseed rape roots, the aboveground plant parts were delayed in senescence and produced more seeds, which is indicative of an increase in yield after A. alternatum treatment. The long-term goal of this work is to contribute to a fundamental understanding of endophyte-plant interactions and an effective reduction of clubroot to be used in integrated pest management for oilseed rape and other cabbage varieties. Keywords: Acremonium alternatum; Brassica napus; clubroot disease; endophytic fungus; Plasmodiophora brassicae; seed yield ...
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K. SOWJANYA SREE, KLAUS-J. APPENROTH Amity Institute of Microbial Technology, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India Institute of Plant Physiology, University of Jena, Jena, Germany *For correspondence: Klaus-J. Appenroth, University of Jena, Institute of Plant Physiology, Dornburger Str. 159, D-07743 Jena, Germany. Email: Klaus.Appenroth@uni-jena.de Phone: +49 3641 949233, Fax: +49 3641 949232 Download PDF Fulltext Abstract Abiotic stresses often result in suppression of photosynthesis and plant growth. Using the duckweed species Lemna minor and subjecting these plants to abiotic stress viz., (1) application of heavy metals, (2) application of salt (NaCl), and (3) lack of phosphate, we showed that photosynthesis was inhibited to a lesser degree than plant growth. This became evident by detecting the accumulation of starch under these conditions: (1) Cadmium ions and other heavy metals induced the accumulation of starch after 4 days of treatment at concentrations when growth was almost completely suppressed (e. g. 80 %). (2) Application of NaCl at a concentration of 150 mM also resulted in accumulation of starch but the highest level could be observed only after 7 days. (3) Depletion of phosphate in the growth medium had similar effects leading to starch accumulation after 14 days of treatment. Starch can accumulate to approximately 50% of dry mass under the three different conditions. We suggest the following common molecular mechanism: The stress factor suppresses growth more effectively than photosynthesis. The resulting surplus of carbohydrates is then stored as starch. This hypothesis has biotechnological relevance since stressors may be applied for increasing starch accumulation in duckweed and thus could be used to optimize bioethanol production from this aquatic crop. Key words: Duckweed, Lemna minor, Lemnaceae, Starch accumulation, stress responses ...
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Irena Sherameti, Khabat Vahabi, Anatoli Ludwig, Chao Sun and Ralf Oelmüller* Institute of Plant Physiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Dornburger Str. 159, 07743 Jena, Germany Corresponding author e-mail: b7oera@uni-jena. de Download PDF Fulltext Abstract A huge number of beneficial and pathogenic fungi release biomolecules into the rhizosphere which initiate signaling events in the roots leading to mutualistic or pathogenic plant/fungus interactions. The combination and concentration of the individual biomolecules in the rhizosphere is critical for the plant´s decision to invest in either growth or defense. These biomolecules activate receptors in the roots and induce cytoplasmic Ca2+ elevation in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Furthermore, they stimulate phospholipid signaling and AGC kinase activities which coordinate the balanced response between growth/development and defense, by cross-talking to the Ca2+ signals. We use transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the Ca2+ sensor aequorin to isolate and identify biomolecules from the exudates of the beneficial root-colonizing fungi Piriformospora indica and Mortierella hyalina, and from the pathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicae and Verticillium dahliae. In this brief summary, we will introduce these microorganisms and their specific role in the interaction with roots. Their exudate componentsinduce a rapid (< 90 s) and transient increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels in the roots. We isolated Arabidopsis non-allelic EMS mutants which do not respond to these biomolecules. Their initial characterization has demonstrated that the Ca2+ response is necessary for the proper plant response to the fungi, and that these mutants are impaired inabscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Key words:P. indica, M. hyalina, A. brassicae, V. dahliae, transgenic Arabidopsis, [Ca2+]cyt elevation, fungal exudates ...
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Animal & Human

KLODIAN DEDOLLI2, ANITA KONI2, RUZHDI KEÇI1, XHELIL KOLECI1* 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania 2PhD Student, Veterinary Public ...
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 XHELIL KOLECI1*, ROBERT CONNOR2, TONI KIRANDJISKI3, RUZHDI KEÇI1 1 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania 2 Team Leader of European ...
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ALMA LLAMBIRI1, LUMTURI PAPA2, LUAN HAJNO1, RREZARTA MARIKA1, 1Center of Agriculture Technology Transfer, Fushe – Kruja 2Agriculture University of Tirana ...
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MANJOLA KULIÇI1*, KRISTAQ KUME2 1Internacional University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania 2Aleksander Moisiu University, Durrës, Albania *Coresponding author Email: manjolakulici@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext ...
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Kujtim MersinAJ1*, Lulieta alla2, xhelil koleci3,Silvia bino2,  1National Veterinary Epidemiology Unit, Food Safety and Veterinary Institute – Tirana, Albania 2Department ...
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 MARSIDA BLLACA*, VLADIMIR SPAHO² Agricultural University,Tirana, Albania *Corresëponding author e-mail: mbllaca@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract: The experiment is done in ...
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LUAN HAJNO1* FEHMI XHEMO2 KUJTIM GJONI3 1Centre for Agricultural Transfer Technology 2Department of Biochemistry & Agro-nutrition “F.S.N. University, Korça, Albania 3Regional Agriculture and Rural ...
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ARJAN DEMIRI3, JERINA KOLITARI1, PETTER VEBENSTAD2, GULIELM KROQI1, LAURA GJYLI5  1 Agricultural University of Tirana/Department of Aquaculture & Fishery, ALBANIA  2 Teknologisk ...
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VALBONA KOLANECI*, BLEDAR KUKA, BLERTA DERVISHAJ Department of Aquaculture and Fishery, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, ...
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QOKU ALKETA1*, PASSANTINO LETIZIA2, MAZARI BRUNILDA3, XHEMOLLARI EGLANTINA1, DHASKALI LULJETA1 1Department of Clinical Subjects, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University ...
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Food Technology and Safety

VALMIRE VOCA, RIFAT MORINA, ALUSH MUSAJ* University of Mitrovica “Isa Boletini”, Faculty of Food Technology,  Department of Technology, 40000 Mitrovicë, ...
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MUSA DIBRANI, ALUSH MUSAJ, RIFAT MORINA* Faculty of Technology, Department of Food Engineering and Technology, University Of Mitrovica,”Isa Boletini”. PIM ...
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Luziana Hoxha, Oneida Kycyk, Renata Kongoli, Eranda Mane * Food Research Centre, Department of Biotechnology and Food, Agricultural University of Tirana, ...
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ENVER BAJRAMI1*, KAPLLAN SULAJ2 1*Veterinary Doctor, Gjilan, Kosovo 2Faculty of Biotechnology and Food, Agricultural University of Tirana, Kamez, Tirana, Albania *Corresponding author e-mail: univers_e@hotmail.com Download PDF fulltext  Abstract Processing ...
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ALI LILO1*, KAPLLAN SULAJ2 1*Institute of Food Safety and Veterinary, Street “A. Moisiu” 82, Tirana, Albania  2Faculty of Biotechnology and Food, Agricultural University of Tirana, Kamez, Tirana, Albania ...
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HAMDI ALIU1*, KAPLLAN SULAJ2 1Veterinary Doctor in Podujevo Region, Kosovo, 2Faculty of Biotechnology and Food, Agricultural University of Tirana, Kamëz, Tirana *Corresponding author e-mail: hamdialiu@yahoo.com Download PDF Fulltext Abstract This study ...
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ERMELINDA NEXHIPI1 , ELVIRA BELI2 1The Department of Microbiology, the Institution Food Safety and Veterinary “, of Tirana 2The Faculty of ...
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XHULIETA HAMITI1*,ILIRJANA BOCI1, ELDA ZIU2 , ARDIAN XINXO3 1Chemistry Department, Natural Science Faculty, University of Tirana, Albania 2 Industrial Chemistry Departments, Natural Science Faculty, ...
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ELVIRA BELI1*, RENIS MAÇI2, SONILA ÇOÇOLI1, HALIT MEMOÇI2 1Agricultural University, Kamez, Albania 2Food Safety and Veterinary Institute, Str. Aleksandër Moisiu ...
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Elvira Beli1*, Renis Maçi2, Sonila Çoçoli1, Halit Memoçi2 1 Agricultural University, Kamez, Albania 2 Food Safety and Veterinary Institute, Str ...
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